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Chapter 9
The Executive Branch and the Federal Bureaucracy
21
Political Studies
04/19/2012

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Term
patronage
Definition
jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies ofr their support
Term
spoils system
Definition
the firing of public-ofice holders of a defeated political party in order to replace them with loyalists of the newly party
Term
Civil Service Reform Act / Pendleton Act (1883)
Definition
reform measure that created the civil service commission to administer a partial merit system. Act classified the federal service by grades, to which appointments were made based on the results of a competitive examination. Made it illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular party.
Term
merit system
Definition
system by which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades or levels, and appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations
Term
-independent regulatory commissions
Definition
an agency created by congress that is generally concerned with a specific aspect of the economy
Term
-government corporations
Definition
businesses established by congress to perform functions that can be provided by private businesses
Term
-independent executive agencies
Definition
governmental units that closely resemble a cabinet department but have narrower areas of responsibility and are not part of any cabinet department
Term
iron triangles
Definition
stable relationships and patterns of interactions that occur among agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees
Term
issue networks
Definition
loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
Term
spoils system
Definition
President Andrew Jackson fundamentally changed the nature of the federal bureaucracy by implementing
Term
their qualifications.
Definition
The Pendleton Act established that civil servants would be selected on the basis o
Term
regulate labor practices and employer-employee relations.
Definition
he Department of Commerce and Labor was established by Theodore Roosevelt to
Term
ICC
Definition
Which bureaucracy was created to regulate the rates charged by railroads for shipping freight?
Term
16th
Definition
The ratification of the ________ Amendment in 1913, gave Congress the authority to implement a federal income tax, and thus allowed government to grow even more.
Term
15
Definition
Currently, there are _________ Cabinet-level departments.
Term
provide electricity to a part of the country that had not been served by private utilities.
Definition
The Tennessee Valley Authority was established to
Term
Administrative adjudication
Definition
_________ is when an agency settles a dispute between two parties in a court-like process.
Term
rule making
Definition
is a quasi-legislative process that can be used to exercise administrative discretion, and which results in policies that have the effect of laws.
Term
fire alarm
Definition
What is the most frequently used form of congressional oversight?
Term
hatch act
Definition
f you work for the Environmental Protection Agency, you cannot work for Barack Obama's reelection campaign because
Term
An executive order to add gender to the list of groups that the government could not discriminate against
Definition
Lyndon Johnson used what presidential power over the bureaucracy to prohibit gender discrimination in awarding government contracts?