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Chapter 8: Deviance
Vocabulary
38
Sociology
12/10/2008

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Term
What is deviance?
Definition
An act considered by public conscious or by the powerful at a given time and place to be a violation of some social rule.Deviance is a violation of a social norm. Determining whether an act violates this norm is determined by three main factors: time, place, and public consensus or power.
Term
   Homicide Deviance
Definition
Personal crime involving non-strangers. Takes place on weekends, lower class offenders.Guns are the most popular form of conduction Homicide
Term
  Drug Use Deviance Characteristics
Definition
Tend to be poor (help with coping, tend to ease their lives, and make them feel like they have a sense of purpose. Note: easy to access drugs)
Term
    Pornography deviance characteristics
Definition
“Obscene or sexually explicit materials in the media”
Erotic nonviolent porn is not harmful, but violent porn is.
Term
   Corporate Crime deviance characteristics
Definition
Corporate crime is more profitable. Corporate offenders don’t see themselves as criminals, and society does little to punish them.
Term
    Mental Problems deviance characteristics
Definition
The poor are the most common people with mental problems because they’re stressed, and are more likely to move into lower class housing
Term
  Psychosis
Definition
Typified by loss of touch with reality
Term
    Neurosis
Definition
Characterized by a persistent fear, anxiety, or worry about trivial matters
Term
Homophobia deviance characteristics
Definition
“Prejudice and discrimination against gays and lesbians”
Most Americans reject the lifestyle of them, but support their civil rights.Considered a deviance due to seeking love and pleasure over procreation
Term
The six types of deviances
Definition
Homicide, drug use, pornography, corporate crime, mental problems, and homophobia
Term
Durkheim: Functionalist Theory?
Definition
Deviance can serve as a number of factors in a society
(Enhance conformity: See what the boundaries are between what is right and what is wrong, strengthen Solidarity:helps to combine the healthy in the society,provides a safety valve: Lets out tension in a mundane schedule, and induce social change: Martin Luther King Junior, Gandhi)
Term
Robert Merton: Strain Theory?
Definition
Says that the United States societies emphasize the importance of success without providing equal opportunities to achieving it, due to deviance. There's a gap between goals and responses (conformity, innovation, ritualism, and retreatism)
Term
Anomie
Definition
“Normlessness,” is a social condition in which norm as are absent, weak, or in conflict
Term

Travis Hirschi: Control Theory?
Definition
States that social control leads to conformity and therefore, the absence of control causes deviance.Hirschi states that the absence of control arises from the lack of social bonds.
Term
   Marginal Surplus Population
Definition
Superfluous or useless to the economy- and they are compelled to commit property crimes to survive
Term
Shaming Theory
Definition
Showing disapproval to remorse in the wrongdoer
Term
    Disintegrative Shaming
Definition
The wrongdoer is punished in such a way as to be stigmatized, rejected, or ostracized in effect, banished from conventional society
Term
    Reintegrative Shaming
Definition
Is more positive, and involves making wrongdoers feel guilty while showing them understanding, forgiveness, or even respect
Term
Power theory?
Definition
The powerful are more likely to engage in profitable deviance than the powerless are in unprofitable deviance because the powerful have a stronger deviant motivation, greater deviant opportunity, and a weaker social control
Term
   Relative Deprivation?
Definition
Feeling unable to achieve relatively high aspirations
Term
Feminist Theory of Deviance?
Definition
The conventional theories are only relevant to men (woman are often times the victims of deviance)
Term
Differential Association?
Definition
“ The process of acquiring through interaction with others”
Term
   Pro Deviant example:
Definition
“ It’s alright to steal when you’re poor”
Term
    Anti deviant example
Definition
“It’s not ok to steal”
Term
Labeling Theory:
Definition
Labeling one as a deviant human, may further their need to be deviant
Term
Primary Deviance:
Definition
To refer to these violations of norm as that a person commits for the first time and without considering them deviant (children breaking windows, playing hooky etc.)(- Edwin Lemett)
Term
   Recidivism
Definition
A criminal or wrongdoer who offends multiple times
Term
   Secondary Deviance
Definition
To refer to such repeated norm violations, which the violators themselves recognize as deviant (conformed or career deviance)
Term
Phenomenological Theory
Definition
We understand deviance better by looking into people’s subjective interpretations of their own deviant experiences. Deviants have a positive view on themselves
Term
Social Control:
Definition
“Is the process by which individuals are pressured by society to conform to social norms”
Term
Medicalization of Deviance: 
Definition
“Diagnosing and treating deviant behavior as a disease” (Hyperactivity in school children results in ADHD pills).Medicine is a social institution is used to control what is considered unwillfull deviance by diagnosing and treating it as a disease
Term
   Mesomorph
Definition
Human with a muscular body shape
Term
  Endomorph
Definition
A round body frame with highly fatty tissue
Term
    Ectomorph
Definition
A person with a lean and delicate body frame
Term
Elisabeth Kubler- Ross: “Responses to deep emotional loss” (five stages)
Definition
1st stage theory: Initial Denial (Not me!)
2nd Stage: Anger at everyone (why me?)
3rd Stage: Bargaining (Give me just a little more time!)
4TH Stage: Depression + Despair
5TH Stage: Acceptance
Term
Steps to becoming Resocalized (three steps)
Definition
Desocialization – Resocialzation--- Reification
Term

Resocialization (five stages)

Definition
First Stage: Bond to new member of the group
Second Stage: Screen at weaker members
Third Stage: Clarifies social status and roles
Fourth Stage: Sustains cultural traditions
Fifth Stage: Instructs new members
Term
Definition