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Chapter 7-9
Intro to Media Communication
124
Communication
03/06/2013

Additional Communication Flashcards

 


 

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Term
Public Relations
Definition
an industry that focuses on building and managing clients' brands and perceptions
Term
public relations polling
Definition
an important means of acquiring data for companies and other branches of PR to help inform their approaches to cultivating public opinion
Term
psychographic studies
Definition
studies that look at individuals' lifestyles, attitudes and personalities
Term
product affinity
Definition
acceptance of a product's message or brand for the purposes of building a strong emotional relationship with it
Term
product placement
Definition
a highly effective way of creating audience affinity with a product or message without direct commercial advertising; also known as product integration
Term
propaganda
Definition
a type of communication that concentrates on persuading clients to support a very specific issue, such as a cause or social movement, and most commonly a government's decision to go to war
Term
proactive PR
Definition
a type of PR that engages with the public and seeks to demonstrate good will
Term
reactive PR
Definition
PR that attempts to rescue companies when crisis occurs
Term
public service announcements (PSAs)
Definition
noncommercial and presumably nonpolitical advertising
Term
political consulting
Definition
PR that advises politicians on how to best engage their constituencies
Term
advertising
Definition
a type of communication that attempts to persuade individuals to take some form of action (buy, believe, consume) toward a product, idea or service
Term
audience broadcasting
Definition
a type of media message that seeks the widest reach and the largest number of "eyes" or "ears" for an ad
Term
consumerism
Definition
a system that creates and encourages the purchase of goods and/or services in increasing amounts
Term
click fraud
Definition
a service that creates large runs of repetitive automated link clicks to a page, giving a false representation of the number of real-page views
Term
clickbots
Definition
a program that runs a clickfraud operation
Term
customized ad viewing
Definition
a service that allows users to select which ads they will watch and when they will watch them online
Term
crisis communication
Definition
a form of PR communication meant to stimulate interest in a product after a product line has been created, or to reform the image of a company in the wake of an emergency
Term
contingency planning
Definition
a form of PR that develops action plans to address problems that are likely to confront organization in the future; it include crisis management
Term
demographic studies
Definition
studies that examine basic human characteristics, such as individuals' age, gender, race and income
Term
declaration of principles
Definition
Ivy Ledbetter Lee's foundational work that presented the first set of ethical standards for public relations
Term
financial PR
Definition
PR that accurately and persuasively communicates events in the business world to other institutions as well as to consumers
Term
fundraising
Definition
PR that helps to facilitate capital drive campaigns, whether through organizational training or actual implementation
Term
long-tail advertising
Definition
internet-ad placement services
Term
lobbying
Definition
PR that focuses on communicating the interests, concerns, and issues pertinent to particular individuals and organizations to local, state and national legislatures
Term
image consulting
Definition
grooming a clients image in ways that promote positive public perceptions of the client
Term
social cause promotion
Definition
PR that attempts to persuade the audience to accept an organization's views on a particular issue
Term
"two way street" principle of PR
Definition
articulated by Ivy Ledbetter Lee, the idea that the PR profesional is a communication facilitator between clients and the public
Term
360-degree campaigns
Definition
a campaign that presents the client's message across a wide range of media platforms, including the internet, television and radio, print and mobile devices
Term
Madison-meets-vine
Definition
the growth of product integration in television programs and movies
Term
narrowcasting
Definition
a type of media message that encompasses narrowly directed messages to smaller, more clearly defined audience segments
Term
Electronic Frontier Foundation
Definition
a non profit advocacy group made up of lawyers, policy analysts, and activists working on behalf of media consumers
Term
Telecom Reform Act
Definition
US legislation that attempted to regulate some information and media content from the web
Term
Network Neutrality
Definition
the view that everyone should have equal access to all online content at equal speeds
Term
new media
Definition
the term encompassing all digital, interactive and converged media on the internet
Term
Web 1.0
Definition
digital publishing and distribution as well as early forms of e-mail communication
Term
web 2.0
Definition
also knows as the "new media"; includes greatly enhanced user participation via networked creativity, innovation, information and content sharing
Term
content sharing
Definition
the exchange of intellectual property among users over the internet
Term
streaming media
Definition
content that is delivered in a constant, continuous manner over the web
Term
meme
Definition
an idea that spreads rapidly through cultures, much in the same way a virus spreads through living organisms
Term
viral media
Definition
media messages shared through rapid replication via the internet
Term
URL (universal resource locator)
Definition
a system that gives every document in every site on the internet a unique, locatable "address" that anyone can easily access
Term
HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol)
Definition
a collection of communication and software standards that allow many different types of computers to communicate with each other over the web
Term
HTML (hypertext markup language)
Definition
a relatively simple programming language that allows web developers to specify how a document will appear when accessed by a wide variety of internet browser programs
Term
internet browser
Definition
an application whose software allows information on the world wide web to be viewed, retrieved, and moved
Term
netscape navigator
Definition
the first internet browser made widely available to the public
Term
modem
Definition
a device that connects computers via telephone lines
Term
high performance computing and communications act of 1991
Definition
"The Gore Bill," which allocated $600 million for the creation of the national research and education network (NREN), and served as the foundation for the "information superhighway"
Term
voice over internet protocol (voIP)
Definition
voice communications that occur over the internet
Term
compatible time sharing systems (CTSS)
Definition
a system that allows users of IMB mainframe computers remote access as well as the ability to leave messages for other users
Term
file transfer protocol (FTP)
Definition
a standard set of procedures used for exchanging and manipulating files across a network of computers
Term
SMTP (standard mail transfer protocol)
Definition
an application used for sending and receiving e-mail
Term
POP (post office protocol)
Definition
an application used for receiving e-mail
Term
hyperlinks
Definition
references or sources that can be accessed by clicking a link
Term
dynamic adaptive learning
Definition
self-directed selection of knowledge nodes and self-structured organization to increase one's ability to obtain new knowledge
Term
peer-to-peer
Definition
user networks such as Napster and BitTorrent, where the content is not only shared between peers, but supplied and purchased by them as well
Term
wikipedia
Definition
a non-profit, open-content, internet-based encyclopedia established by internet entrepreneur Jim Wales and philosopher LArry Sanger
Term
open-source model
Definition
an approach to content production and management that permits easy, widespread access to information
Term
paid search optimism
Definition
the practice of increasing site traffic via internet advertising
Term
content mobility
Definition
also known as "three screen convergence"; an approach that supports relatively seamless transferring of video content between digital television, personal computers and mobile devices
Term
micro-blogging
Definition
a much abbreviated form of blogging, such as twitter
Term
net roots movement
Definition
the use of blogs as a form of political activism
Term
player progression
Definition
a characteristic of video games that focus on the development of each player's game skills
Term
virtual reality
Definition
a computer-simulated environment
Term
immersive virtual reality (IVR)
Definition
the purist form of virtual reality, which combines sophisticated interactive appliances with realistic computer-generated environments, thereby engaging most of the human senses
Term
participatory virtual reality (PVR)
Definition
new media technology accessed online or via digital storage devices that enable users to move through, explore, and interact with computer-generated environments
Term
agent-based artificial life program
Definition
in game theory, the open-ended unlimited progression of game play
Term
questing
Definition
a characteristic of a video game that spans across a particular place or geographical area
Term
mass media conglomerate
Definition
a single entity that owns the majority of the media industries
Term
news wire services
Definition
agencies that charge for news distribution
Term
media monopoly
Definition
a market model in which the production and distribution of a specific media industry is dominated by a single group
Term
hollywood studio system
Definition
a handful of movie studios that virtually ruled the entire film industry in the first half of the 20th century, controlling everything from screenwriters' and actors' contracts to the ownership of movie theaters
Term
golden age of hollywood
Definition
between the late 1920's to mid 1960's; the era during which five film studios dominated the US movie industry
Term
antitrust laws
Definition
US federal efforts to break up industry monopolies and allow for healthy competition in such areas as steel, tobacco, and oil
Term
sherman antitrust act
Definition
US federal legislation that allows the government to investigate companies it suspects might have violated antitrust regulations
Term
celler-kefauver act
Definition
(1950) US federal legislation that sought to close loopholes that might result in conglomeration of businesses; also commonly referred to as the anti-merger act
Term
vertical integration
Definition
a business structure in which one company operates and controls all of the means of production, distribution and exhibition for a large segment of the news publishing or movie industry
Term
economics of scale
Definition
the ability to increase cost advantages by increasing production levels and sometimes expanding the business
Term
syndicate
Definition
a cooperative collective of small companies
Term
blacklist
Definition
purposeful denying of certain privileges to selected parties
Term
fiduciary responsible
Definition
the legal requirement of all members of the board of directors for a company to make their best efforts to manage the firm and protect the interest of all the shareholders
Term
market model
Definition
also known as the American-style media business model; a model in which the majority of media are funded through a combination of advertising revenue and subscription fees
Term
direct media revenues
Definition
revenue from selling media products and content directly to the consumer
Term
indirect media revenues
Definition
revenue primarily received from advertisers and advertising-related sales such as product placement
Term
media asset value
Definition
value based on all of the media properties produced and/or owned by a company in a given year, compared to the total cost of creation
Term
return on investment
Definition
financial term for when a company can economically produce high-valued media assets and higher revenues through efficient use of its production resources
Term
public sphere model
Definition
a model in which media serve as the central environment or "space" in which ideas and views circulate in the form of information sharing and storytelling
Term
new media model
Definition
the internet media business model wherein media creators rely on the web to reach and sell to their audiences directly
Term
vanity press & subsidy publishers
Definition
a publisher that offers authors low-cost alternatives publication of their manuscripts by the commercial publishing houses
Term
federal communications commission (FCC)
Definition
a US government agency that is empowered by the federal government to regulate the licensing and use of the broadcast spectrum of the media by all non-governmental organizations, companies, or individuals
Term
broadcasting region
Definition
geographic spread of television stations owned by a company
Term
telecommunications act of 1996
Definition
US federal legislation that deregulated the broadcast industry and removed the long-running restrictions on multistation ownership
Term
high fidelity premium record
Definition
a record containing sound produced at advanced levels
Term
race music
Definition
predecessor to rhythm and blues; music that catered to racial sterotypes
Term
broadcasting
Definition
spreading media content through telecommunication
Term
commercial radio
Definition
advertising-backed radio that helped to increase radio's financial base and spurred rapid improvement in both the quality and quantity of programming
Term
33 1/3 rpm long-play disc
Definition
a device that made the syndication of full radio programs an affordable alternative for smaller radio stations in the 1930'a
Term
acetate blank recording disc
Definition
a device onto which radio stations could record on the spot, earning it the name the "instantaneous" record
Term
air checks
Definition
in radio, recordings of commercials sent back to advertisers to prove airtime purchased
Term
studio engineers
Definition
professionals who are abel to cut out and replace eorros i performances as well as create complex compositions that would be non-reproducible outside a studio
Term
digital subscription model
Definition
a content-on-demand model that delivers digital content whenever and wherever they seek it
Term
acquisition
Definition
in film or television, the stage of the media creation process in which the producer requires rights to the story
Term
treatment
Definition
book rights, a script or story concept, usually developed and presented in abbreviated form
Term
spec script
Definition
a treatment written on speculation or placed on the open market
Term
development
Definition
in film or television, the stage of the media creation process in which the screen play and characters are shaped; a story's background and potential shoot location are researched; and production budget details are built
Term
show runners
Definition
bankable talent
Term
production financing stage
Definition
in film and tv, the point in the media creation process at which the producer lines up the lion's share of the funding for the project
Term
soft-cost resources
Definition
production crews and equipment and post-production facilities
Term
product tie-ins
Definition
t-shirts, books, toys, and other items linked to a media project
Term
pre-production stage
Definition
during this stage, the many details of production are put into place, including the casting of the actors, hiring of the crew, contracting with locations, designing and building sets or special effects, costuming and arrangements for transportation, lodging and catering for cast and crew
Term
production stage
Definition
in film or tv, the stage of the media creation process in which all of the story scenes are filmed in a nonlinear sequence; also known as the principle photography stage
Term
post-production stage
Definition
in film and tv, the stage of the media creation process in which all of the material that has been shot is edited and into a linear story
Term
distribution stage
Definition
in film and tv, the stage of the media creation process in which the final project is released to theaters or premiers in the lead television network's programming schedule
Term
audience share
Definition
market share of the media audiences
Term
rule of three
Definition
targeted audience capture = increased revenues from sales and or advertising = content control
Term
international media co-production treaties
Definition
agreements established by countries in an effort to respond to the economic challenges facing their respective native media production companies
Term
Tim Berner's Lee
Definition
created world wide web
Term
Marc Andreesen and Eric Bina
Definition
developed mosaic, the first internet browser
Term
Jim Clark
Definition
created netscape navigator
Term
Dr. Rapaille
Definition
inner desires, built identities around purchased goods
Term
cognitive dissonance
Definition
a theory that says we act first, then rationalize our behavior afterward to fit our actions into our ideas of who we are
Term
Television Bureau of Advertising
Definition
expanded commercial breaks but decreased length of commericals
Term
Ivy Bedletter Lee
Definition
founder of public relations
Term
P.T Barnum
Definition
produced national PR campaigns, press coverage and public interest
Term
agenda setting
Definition
he process whereby the mass media determine what we think and worry about