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Chapter 6 - Vocabulary
Basic Vocabulary
146
Medical
10/04/2012

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Term
Lacteals
Definition
specialized structures of the lymphatic system that absorb those fats that cannot be transported by the bloodstream
Term
Lymph
Definition
made up of the remaining 10% of the returning intestinal fluid, clear, watery fluid containing electrolytes and proteins
Term
Lymphatic Capillaries
Definition
microscopic, blind-ended tubes located near the surface of the body with capillary walls that are only one cell in thickness
Term
Right Lymphatic Duct
Definition
collects lymph from the right side of the head and neck, the upper right quadrant of the body, and the right arm
Term
Thoracic Duct
Definition
the largest lymphatic vessel in the body, collects lymph from the left side of the head and neck, the upper left quadrant of the trunk, the left arm, the entire lower portion of the trunk, and both legs.
Term
Lymph Node
Definition
contains specialized lymphocytes that are capable of destroying pathogens
Term
Cervical Lymph Nodes
Definition
Located along the sides of the neck
Term
Axillary Lymph Nodes
Definition
Located under the arms in the area known as the armpits
Term
Inguinal Lymph Nodes
Definition
located in the inguinal (groin) area of the lower abdomen
Term
Lymphocytes
Definition
Lymphoid Cells; leukocytes that are formed in bone marrow as stem cells; three type: Natural Killer Cells, B cells, and T Cells.
Term
Natural Killer Cells
Definition
play an important role in the killing of cancer cells and cells infected by viruses
Term
B Cells
Definition
B Lymphocytes; specialized lymphocytes that produce antibodies.
Term
Plasma Cells
Definition
develop from B Cells and secrete a large volume of antibodies to coded to destroy specific antigens
Term
T Cells
Definition
T Lymphocytes; belong to a group of leukocytes known as lymphocytes; play a central role in cell-mediated immunity
Term
Cytokines
Definition
a group of proteins such as interferons,and interleukins released primarily by the T cells; Act as intracellular signals to start the immune response
Term
Interferons
Definition
produced in response to the presence to the presence of antigens, particularly viruses or tumor cells;activate the immune system, fight viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication, and signal other cells to increase their defenses
Term
Interleukins
Definition
play multiple roles in the immune system, including directing B and T cells to divide and proliferate
Term
tonsils
Definition
three masses of lymphoid tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose and upper throat; prevents pathogens from entering the respiratory system when breathing
Term
Adenoids
Definition
Nasopharyngeal tonsils; located in the nasopharynx, wihch is the upper part of the pharynx
Term
Palatine Tonsils
Definition
located on the left and right sides of the throat in the area that is visible at the back of the mouth
Term
Lingual Tonsils
Definition
located at the base of the tongue; not readily visible
Term
Thymus
Definition
a mass of lymphoid tissue located above the heart; largest at puberty and becomes smaller with age
Term
Vermiform Appendix
Definition
Appendix; located on the lower portion of the cecum, first part of the large intestine
Term
Spleen
Definition
Sac-Like mass of lymphoid tissue located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen; inferior to the diaphragm and posterior to the stomach
Term
Intact Skin
Definition
wraps the body in a physical barrier to prevent invading organisms from entering the body.
Term
Respiratory System
Definition
traps breathed-in foreign matter with nose hairs and the moist mucous membrane lining of the respiratory system
Term
Digestive System
Definition
uses the acids and enzymes produced by the stomach to destroy invaders that are swallowed or consumed with food
Term
antigen-body reaction
Definition
immune reaction: involves binding antigens to antibodies; this labels a potentially dangerous antigen so it can be destroyed by other cells
Term
Antigen
Definition
any substance that the body regards as being foreign
Term
Tolerance
Definition
refers to an acquired unresponsiveness to a specific antigen
Term
Antibody
Definition
a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to a specific antigen
Term
Immunoglobulins
Definition
bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response; secreted by plasma cells
Term
Phagocytes
Definition
specialized leukocytes that act as part of the antigen-antibody reaction by destroying substances such as cell debris, dust, pollen, and pathogens by the process of phagocytosis
Term
Phagocytosis
Definition
the process of destroying pathogens by surrounding and swallowing them
Term
Monocytes
Definition
Leukocytes that provide immunological defenses against many infectious organisms; also replenish macrophages and dendritic cells
Term
Macrophage
Definition
a type of leukocyte that surrounds and kills invading cells; also remove dead cells and stimulate the action of other immune cells
Term
Dendritic Cells
Definition
specialized leukocytes that patrol the body searching for antigens that produce infections; when found the dendritc cells grabs it, swallows, and alerts B and T cells to act against the specific antigen
Term
The Complement System
Definition
a group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form; when needed, these cells complement the ability of antibodies to ward off pathogens by combining with them to dissolve and remove pathogenic bacteria and other foreign cells
Term
Immunity
Definition
the state of being resistant to a certain type of disease
Term
Natural Immunity
Definition
Passive Immunity; resistance to a disease present without the administration of an antigen or exposure to a disease
Term
Acquired Immunity
Definition
obtained by having had a contagious disease. being vaccinated against a contagious disease provides protection against that disease without having been exposed to the risk of actually having the disease
Term
Allergist
Definition
specializes in diagnosing and treating conditions of altered immunologic reactivity, such as allergic reactions
Term
immunologist
Definition
specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the immune system
Term
Lymphologist
Definition
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the lymphatic system
Term
Oncologist
Definition
a physician specializing in the diagnosing and treatment of malignant disorders such as tumors and cancer
Term
Lymphedema
Definition
swelling of the tissues sue to an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid within the tissues
Term
Primary Lymphedema
Definition
a hereditary condition of the lymphatic system that develops with swelling beginning in the feet and progressing into the ankles and in an upward direction along the legs
Term
Secondary Lymphedema
Definition
caused by damage to lymphatic vessels that is most frequently due to cancer treatment, surgery, trauma, or burns
Term
Bioimpedance Spectroscopy
Definition
a noninvasive method of diagnosing lymphedema; measures the electrical resistance to an electrical current passed through the affected limb, showing abnormally low results showing a build up of lymph
Term
Allergic Reaction
Definition
occurs when the bodies immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food, or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader
Term
Allergy
Definition
Hypersensitivity; an overreaction of the body to a particular allergen
Term
Allergen
Definition
a substance that produces an allergic reaction in an individual
Term
Localized Allergic Response
Definition
Cellular Response;e includes redness, itching, and burning where the skin has come in contact with an allergen.
Term
Systemic Reaction/Anaphylaxis
Definition
Anaphylactic Shock; a severe response to an allergen
Term
Antihistamines
Definition
medications administered to relieve or prevent the symptoms of hay fever, which is a common allergy to wind-borne pollens, and other types of allergens.
Term
Autoimmune Disorder
Definition
Autoimmune disease; any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues
Term
Immunodeficiency Disorder
Definition
occurs when the immune response is compromised
Term
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Definition
HIV;a bloodborne disease in which the virus damages or kills the T cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail, thus leaving the body at risk of developing many life-threatening oppurtunistic infections
Term
Oppurtunistic Infection
Definition
caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans but when the host is debilitated, they take advantage and cause an infection
Term
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Definition
AIDS; the most advanced and fatal stage of an HIV infection
Term
Kaposi's Sarcoma
Definition
an example of an oppurtunistic infection that is frequently associated with HIV; causes patched of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin
Term
ELISA
Definition
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay;a blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies
Term
Western Blot Test
Definition
a blood test that produces more accurate results than the ELISA test. Only done if ELISA results are positive
Term
Immunotherapy
Definition
a disease treatment that involves either stimulating or repressing the immune response
Term
Synthetic Immunoglobulins
Definition
Immune Serum; used as a postexposure preventative measure against certain viruses, including rabies and some type of virus
Term
Syntthetic Interferon
Definition
used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, hepatitis C, and some cancers
Term
Monoclonal Antibodies
Definition
any class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by identical offspring of a clone of specific cells
Term
Immunosupper
Definition
Term
Immunosuppression
Definition
treatment to repress or interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to stimulation by antigens
Term
Immunosuppressant
Definition
a substance that prevents or reduces the bodies normal immune response
Term
Corticosteroid Drug
Definition
a hormone-like preparation administered primarily as an anti-inflammatory and as an immunosuppressant
Term
Cytotoxic Drug
Definition
medication that kills or damages cells
Term
Pathogen
Definition
a microorganism that causes a disease in humans
Term
Bacteria
Definition
one-celled microscopic organisms
Term
Bacilli
Definition
rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria
Term
Anthrax
Definition
a contagious disease that can be transmitted through livestock infected with bacillus anthracis
Term
Rickettsia
Definition
a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites.
Term
Spirochetes
Definition
long, slender spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement
Term
Lyme Disease
Definition
caused by a spirochete belonging to the genus Borrelia. Lyme Disease, which can affect the joints, heart, and central nervous system, is transmitted through the deer tick
Term
Staphylococci
Definition
a group of about 30 or so bacteria species clustered together and sort of look like grapes; normally harmless but can cause some serious infections
Term
Staphylococcus Aureus
Definition
Staph Aureus; a form of staphylococci that often infects wounds and causes serious problems such as toxic shock syndrome or food poisoning
Term
Streptococci
Definition
bacteria that form a chain; mostly harmless except for a few
Term
Septic Shock
Definition
a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming bacterial infection affects the body
Term
Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
Definition
occur when antibiotics fail to kill all of the bacteria they target; When this happens, bacteria adapts to resist the disease
Term
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus
Definition
MRSA; one of several types of bacteria that are now drug resistant
Term
Fungus
Definition
a simple parasitic organism; some are harmless some are pathogens
Term
Tinea Pedis
Definition
Athlete's Foot; a fungal infection that develops between the toes
Term
Yeast
Definition
a type of fungus
Term
Candidiasis
Definition
Yeast Infection; occur on the skin or mucous membranes where it is warm and moist
Term
Parasite
Definition
a plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism at the expense of that organism
Term
Malaria
Definition
caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes and is transferred to human by the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms include fever, shaking chills, muscle aches, and tiredness
Term
Toxoplasmosis
Definition
a parasite that is most commonly transmitted from pets to humans through animal feces.
Term
West Nile Virus
Definition
also spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito;has flu-like symptons and can spread to the spinal cord and brain
Term
Viruses
Definition
very small infectious agents that live only by invading other cells. Reproduces inside the cells,destroys it, searches for more
Term
Influenza
Definition
Flu; a highly contagious viral respiratory infection that usually occurs in seasonal epidemics
Term
Measles
Definition
an acute, highly contagious, infection that is transmitted by respiratory droplets of the rubeola virus. symptoms include a red, itchy rash over the entire body , high fever, a runny nose, and coughing
Term
Mumps
Definition
a acute viral infection that is characterized by the swelling of the parotid glands, which are the salivary glands located just in front of the ears; can also cause painful swelling of the genitals
Term
Rubella
Definition
German Measles/3-day measles; a viral infection characterized by a low-grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes, and a fine pink rash
Term
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination
Definition
MMR; immunization can prevent these three viral infections and should be administered in early childhood
Term
Rabies
Definition
a acute viral infection that is transmitted to humans through the bite or saliva of an infected animal; immediate treatment is required because, if not taken care of, the virus becomes fatal
Term
Cytomegalovirus
Definition
silent infection; shows no symptons but can cause serious infection to people with deficient immune systems and can cause congenital birth defects
Term
Varicella
Definition
Chicken-Pox; caused by the herpes virus Varicella zoster and is highly contagious
Term
Herpes Zoster
Definition
Shingles; an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve; occurs when the dormant varicella activates later in life
Term
Infectious Mononucleolus
Definition
Mono; caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); characterized by a fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes; swelling can also occur in the spleen and liver
Term
Antibiotics
Definition
Medications capable of inhibiting growth or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms
Term
Bactericide
Definition
a substance that causes the death of bacteria; includes penicillins and cephalosporins
Term
Bacteriostatic agent
Definition
slows or stops the growth of bacteria
Term
Antifungal
Definition
Antimyocotic; an agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi
Term
Antiviral drug
Definition
used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity
Term
Oncology
Definition
the study of prevention, causes, and treatment of tumors and cancer
Term
Tumor
Definition
Neoplasm; a abnormal growth of body tissue; inside the mass cell growth is rapid, abnormal, and progresive
Term
Angiogenesis
Definition
the process through which a tumor supports its growth by gathering its own blood supply
Term
Antiangiogenesis
Definition
a form of treatment that disrupts the blood supply to the tumor
Term
Cancer
Definition
a class of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues either by direct invasion or through metastasisizing.
Term
Metastasize
Definition
the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another
Term
Metastasis
Definition
the new cancer site that results from the spreading process
Term
Carcinoma
Definition
a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue
Term
Carcinoma in situ
Definition
a malignant tumor that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues
Term
Sarcoma
Definition
a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, including hard, soft, and liquid connective tissues
Term
Staging
Definition
the process of classifying tumors by how far the disease has progressed, the potential for its responding to therapy, and the patient's prognosis
Term
Lymphoma
Definition
a general term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues
Term
Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Definition
Hodgkin's disease; distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large cancerous lymphocytes known as Reed-Sternberg cells
Term
Non-hodgkin's Lymphoma
Definition
used to describe any lymphoma other than hodgkin's lymphoma
Term
Breast Cancer
Definition
a carcinoma that develops from the cells of the breast and can spread to adjacent lymph nodes and other body sites
Term
Ductal Carcinoma in Situ
Definition
breast cancer at its earliest stage before the cancer has broken through the wall of the milk duct. at this stage cure rate is nearly 100%
Term
Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma
Definition
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma; starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of that duct , and invades the fatty breast tissue
Term
Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma
Definition
Invasive Lobular Carcinoma; starts in the milk glands, and invades the fatty tissue of the breast; once it reached the lymph nodes it will spread rapidly throughout the body
Term
Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Definition
a rare but aggressive form of breast cancer; grow rapidly, and the symptoms include rapid increase in the breast size, redness or rash on the breast, and swelling of nearby lymph nodes; can only be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Term
Professional palpation of the breast
Definition
performed to feel the texture, size, and consistency of the breast
Term
Breast self-examination
Definition
A self care procedure for the early detection of breast cancer; check for lumps, shape of the nipple, and the skin covering the breast
Term
Mammography
Definition
a radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells
Term
Ultrasound
Definition
used as an initial follow-up test when an abnormality is found by mammography
Term
Needle Breast Biopsy
Definition
a technique in which an x-ray guided needle is used to remove small samples of tissue from the breast
Term
Surgical Biopsy
Definition
the removal of a small piece of tissue for examination to confirm a diagnosis
Term
Lymph Node Dissection
Definition
a surgical procedure in which all of the lymph nodes in a major group are removed to determine or slow the spread of cancer in this area
Term
Lumpectomy
Definition
the surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue with the surrounding margin of normal tissue
Term
Radical mastectomy
Definition
the removal of the entire breast and many of the surrounding tissues
Term
Modified Radical Mastectomy
Definition
the surgical removal of the entire breast and of all the lymph nodes under the adjacent arm
Term
Chemotherapy
Definition
the use of chemical agents and drugs in combinations selected to destroy malignant cells and tissues
Term
Chemoprevention
Definition
the use of natural or synthetic substances such as drugs or vitamins to reduce the risk of developing cancer, or to reduce the chance that cancer will reappear
Term
Antineoplastic
Definition
a medication that blocks the development, growth, or proliferation of the malignant cells
Term
Radiation Therapy
Definition
used in the treatment of cancers in an effort to preserve the healthy tissue
Term
Brachytherapy
Definition
the use of radioactive materials in contact with or implanted into the tissue to be treated
Term
Teletherapy
Definition
radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body
Term
Targeted Therapy
Definition
a developing form of anti-cancer drug therapy that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells
Term
Clinical Trials
Definition
involve testing new and promising cancer treatments that have not yet received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval on patients who agree to be a part of the research