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Chapter 5: Memory
Chapter 5 of Schacter's Introducing Psychology
37
Psychology
11/02/2011

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Term
Elaborative Encoding
Definition
relating new info to knowledge that is already in memory
Term
Visual Imagery Encoding
Definition
Storing new info by converting it to mental pictures
Term
Organizational Encoding
Definition
Categorization that involves noticing the relationships among a series of items
Term
Sensory Memory Store
Definition

Place in which sensory info is kept for a second or less

*flashlight and letter test

Term
Iconic Memory
Definition
Fast-decaying store of visual info (a second or less)
Term
Echoic Memory
Definition
Fast-decaying store of auditory info (5 seconds or less)
Term
Short-Term Memory Store
Definition

Place where nonsensory info is kept for more than a few seconds but less than a minute.

* new telephone number off top memory

-stored for 15-20 seconds

Term
Rehearsal
Definition

Process of keeping new info bhy mentally repeating

*repeating new telephone number until you can write it down

Term
Chunking
Definition

Combining small bits of info into larger chunks

*waitress categorizing drinks, main orders, cold foods

Term
Working Memory
Definition

Active Maintenence of info in short-term storage.

*ex: Chess player visualizing what could happen by visualizing chess board in head

Term
Long-Term Memory Storage
Definition
Place in which info can be held for days, weeks, years
Term
Anterograde Amnesia
Definition
Inability to transfer short-term memory to long-term
Term
Retrograde Amnesia
Definition
Inability to retrieve info that was acquired before date of injury
Term
Retrieval Cue
Definition

External info that is associated with new info helps bring it to mind

*ex. Smell of a pumpkin pie can make memory of Thanksgiving with family.

Term
Encoding Specificity Principle
Definition

A retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps recreate the specific way in which the info was initially stored

*ex. Recovering alcoholic returns to old bar and has urge to drink

Term
State-Dependent Retrieval
Definition

Tendency for info to be better recalled when person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval

 

*ex. You're more likely to recall a happy moment when happy and more likely to recall a sad moment when sad. Why it's hard to tell a sad person to "look on the bright side"

Term
Explicit Memory
Definition

When people consciously or intentionally retrieve past experiences

 

*ex. "I remember when..."

Term
Implicit Memory
Definition
When past experiences influence later behavior/performance, even if people aren't trying to recollect or are aware they are remembering them
Term
Procedural Memory
Definition
Gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice
Term
Priming
Definition
Enhanced ability to think of a stimulus as a result of a recent exposure to that stimulus
Term
Semantic Memory
Definition

Network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world

 

*ex. When asked "When is Independence day?" mostly every person will universally know and answer "July 4th"

Term
Episodic Memory
Definition

Collection of past experiences that occurred at a particular time and place

 

*ex. When asked "What happened last Independence Day?"everyone will have a different response to same question. Subjective to each person

Term
Transience
Definition
Forgetting what occurred with the passage of time
Term
Retroactive interference
Definition
When later learning impairs info acquired earlier
Term
Proactive Interference
Definition
Earlier info learned impairs memory for info acquired later
Term
Absent Mindedness
Definition
Lapse in attention that results in memory failure
Term
Prospective Memory
Definition
Remembering to do things in the future
Term
Blocking
Definition

Failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it

 

*ex "Tip of the Tongue" feeling

Term
Memory Misattribution
Definition
Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source
Term
Source of Memory
Definition
A recall of where, when, and how information was acquired
Term
Suggestibility
Definition
Tendency to incorporate misleading info from external sources into presonal recollections
Term
Bias
Definition
Distorting influences of the present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences
Term
Consistency Bias
Definition

Reconstructing the past experiences to fit the present

 

*ex. Not changing beliefs on popular controversies because a person has always believed what they've always believed even as time passes.

Term
Change Bias
Definition

Tendency to exaggerate differences between what we feel or believe now and what we felt or believed in the past.

 

*ex. Ask a couple that's been together for 4 years if they love each other now more than they did when they first met. They'll exaggerate and say their love has grown even though amount of love probably hasn't changed from tomorrow to today.

Term
Egocentric Bias
Definition
Exaggerating the change between past and present in order to make ourselves look good in retrospect
Term
Persistence
Definition
The intrusive recollection of events we wish we could forget
Term
Definition