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Chapter 4
Test 4
64
Physiology
11/29/2011

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Term
Viseral Pleura
Definition
Covers the surface of the lung
Term
Parietal pleura
Definition
lines the thoracic wall
Term
Conducting zone
Definition
Airways from nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles
Term
Function of Conducting Zone
Definition
Moisten, Warm, and Filter Air...NO GAS EXCHANGE
Term
Respiratory zone contains
Definition
Alveoli where gas is exchanged. This zone consists of the Terminal bronchioles, Alveolar ducts and Alveolar sacs
Term
Water in the alveolar fluid creates
Definition
Surface Tension
Term
Surfactent
Definition
Mixture of Phospholipids and lipoprotiens which lowers the surface tension of alveolar fluid. With out surfactent the alveoli would collapse and would have to be re inflated between breaths.
Term
Congestive Heart Failure
Definition
There is an accumulation of fluid in the lungs (known as Pulmonary edema). This increases the thickness of the respiratory membrane, resulting in (more or less) gas exchange.
Term
Percentage of 02 in atmosphere
Definition
20.9
Term
Percentage of C02 in atmosphere
Definition
.04
Term
Percentage of N2 in atmosphere
Definition
78.6
Term
Percentage of H20 in atmosphere
Definition
.46
Term
External Respiration Occurs in the
Definition
Lungs
Term
In External Respiration C02 diffuses from....
Definition
the pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli along its partial pressure gradient
Term
In External Respiration 02 diffuses from
Definition
the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries along its partial pressure gradient
Term
Internal Respiration Occurs in the
Definition
Tissues
Term
In Internal Respiration 02 diffuses from
Definition
systemic capillaries into the cells along its partial pressure gradient
Term
In Internal Respiration C02 diffuses from
Definition
the cells into the systemic capillaries along its partial pressure gradient
Term
Low 02 High C02
Definition
Atrioles: Vasoconstrict to redirect blood to other alveoli with a higher air flow and where there is more 02

Bronchioles: Dilate to eliminate excess C02
Term
High P02 and Low PCO2
Definition
a. Arterioles? Vasodilate. Why? Bring more blood to the alveoli, allowing the blood to pick up

the abundant O2

b. Bronchioles? Constrict. Why? To reduce air flow so it is proportional to local blood flow
Term
Histamine will
Definition
constrict bronchioles  Increases resistance  decreases airflow
Term
Epinephrine will
Definition
Dialates bronchioles  Decreases resistance  Increases airflow
Term
Acetylcholine will
Definition
constrict bronchioles  Increases resistance  decreases airflow
Term
Fibrosis will
Definition
Decrease compliance making it harder to inflate the lungs
Term
A decrease in surfactant will result in a
Definition
decrease in compliance.
Term
What is the condition called in which infants do not produce surfactant
Definition
Respiratory distress syndrome
Term
What is the most important stimulus controlling ventilation?
Definition
PCO2, PO2 and pH
Term
What ion directly stimulates the central chemoreceptors?
Definition
H+. Monitors pH associated with CO2 levels.
Term
If a person hyperventilates what will happen to the following in the blood?
Definition
Pco2 decrease, pH increase
Term
If a person hypoventilates what will happen to the following in the blood?
Definition
Po2 Decreases, Pco2 Increases
Term
Exercised enhanced ventilation does not appear to be prompted by rising PCO2 and declining PO2 and pH in the blood for 2 reasons
Definition
1. Ventilation increases abruptly as exercise begins, followed by a gradual increase, and then a steady state of ventilation

2. Although venous levels change, arterial PCO2 and PO2 levels remain surprisingly constant during exercise.
Term
When oxygen is loaded onto hemoglobin in the lungs, hemoglobin is called
Definition
Oxyhemoglobin
Term
when oxygen is unloaded from the hemoglobin at the tissues it is called
Definition
Deoxyhemoglobin
Term
When CO2 binds to hemoglobin, it is called
Definition
Carbaminohemoglobin
Term
Carbaminohemoglobin forms in regions of
Definition
High PCO2 as blood flows through the systemic capillaries of the tissues
Term
Haldane effect
Definition
A decrease in hemoglobin O2 leads to an increase in CO2 loading. Said another way, O2 loading facilitates CO2 unloading. (Note: The effect is on CO2 loading and unloading.)
Term
Bohr effect
Definition
A decrease in CO2 loading facilitates Oxygen unloading from hemoglobin. Said another way, CO2 loading facilitates O2 unloading. (Note: The effect is on O2 loading and unloading.)
Term
4 Layers of digestive tract
Definition
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
Term
Purpose of microvilli
Definition
increase surface area
Term
single digestive purpose of the liver
Definition
is to produce bile
Term
bile is stored in
Definition
the gallbladder
Term
The function of the epiglottis is to prevent
Definition
a bolus from entering the Trachea
Term
Cephalic
Definition
During this phase receptors for the site, smell, taste, and even the thought of food initiate reflexes that cause salivation, production of gastric juices and gastric contractions.
Term
Gastric
Definition
During this phase food is in the stomach. The stomach contents and volume initiate reflexes that cause the production of gastric secretions and increase gastric motility
Term
Intestinal
Definition
Here the meal moves into the intestines. The intestinal contents and volume initiate reflexes that cause secretion of bicarbonate, digestive enzymes and bile and begin the segmenting contractions of the small intestine. Inhibitory reflexes
Term
List the three major nutrient classes (a.k.a. macronutrients)
Definition
Carbs, protein and fats
Term
The breakdown products (monomers) of proteins are
Definition
Amino Acids
Term
The smallest usable form of carbohydrates
Definition
is glucose
Term
Digestion of starches starts in the
Definition
mouth by salivary amylase
Term
The digestive enzyme pepsin
Definition
begins the breakdown of proteins in the stomach.
Term
Pancreatic lipase
Definition
is responsible for the majority of fat digestion.
Term
micelles
Definition
Bile salts surround monoglycerides and free fatty acids to form tiny droplets
Term
Size of micelles
Definition
a million times smaller than fat droplets. When micelles are in close proximity to the cell membrane, monoglycerides and fatty acids move out of them to enter intestinal cells by simple diffusion through the lipid bilayer
Term
chylomicrons
Definition
Triglycerides are reassembled inside the cell and combined with lipoproteins inside the intestinal epithelial cells to form chylomicrons
Term
lacteal lymphatic capillaries
Definition
Chylomicrons exit the intestinal epithelial cells and then enter the lacteal lymphatic capillaries
Term
Colic bacteria produce
Definition
substantial quantities of Vitamin B as a by product of their metabolism.
Term
three main substances that are absorbed in the large intestine
Definition
a. Vitamin K
b. Salt
c. Water
Term
four major functions of saliva.
Definition
a. Protection- dilutes, buffers, cleanses and helps prevent dental caries. Contains lysosomes and IgA
b. Taste – water moistens foods and dissolves molecules
c. Lubrication- muscous makes foods eaiser to swallow
d. Digestion- Amalyase begins the digesion of starch
Term
The four main components of gastric juice are
Definition
. Mucous – secreted throughout the stomach
b. Pepsinogen – precursor to pepsin – secreted throughout the stomach. Activated by HCL and pepsin
c. Hydrochloric Acid – secreted in the fundus and body
d. Intrinsic Factor - secreted in the fundus and body
Term
Intestinal absorption of Vitamin B12 – requires
Definition
requires Intrinsic Factor (secreted by parietal cells) for absorption. Pernious anemia.
Term
List the only two substances that are absorbed across the stomach’s mucosal epithelium
Definition
a. Alcohol – can destroy the mucosal barrier
b. aspirin – can destroy the mucosal barrier
Term
function of HCl in the stomach?
Definition
a. Activates pepsinogen
b. Breaks down cell walls
c. Kills most bacteria
d. Denatures proteins in food

Term
If the pancrease fails to secrete adequate amounts of digestive enzymes
Definition
the major disruption in digestion is the digestion of fats since most starches and proteins are digested before they get to the small intestine.
Term
The intestinal hormone CCK causes
Definition
contraction of the gall bladder and release of bile into the duodenum.