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chapter 3 Culture
In this Chapter we will study development of culture around the world , including the culture effects if the worldwide trend towerd globalization.
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Sociology
02/07/2012

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Term
Argot
Definition
Specialized language used by members of a group or subculture.
Term
Bilingualism
Definition
The use of two or more languages in a particular setting, such as the
workplace or schoolroom, treating each language as equally legitimate.
Term
Counterculture
Definition
A subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture.
Term
Cultural relativism
Definition
The viewing of people’s behavior from the perspective of their own culture.
Term
Cultural universal
Definition
A common practice or belief found in every culture.
Term
Culture industry
Definition
The worldwide media industry that standardizes the goods and services demanded by consumers.
Term
Culture lag
Definition
A period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions.
Term
Culture war
Definition
The polarization of society over controversial cultural issues.
Term
Diffusion
Definition
The process by which a cultural item is spread from group to group or society to society.
Term
Discovery
Definition
The process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.
Term
Dominant ideology
Definition
A set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.
Term
Ethnocentrism
Definition
The tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others.
Term
Folkway
Definition
A norm governing everyday social behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern.
Term
Formal norm
Definition
A norm that has been written down and that specifies strict punishments for
violators.
Term
Globalization
Definition
The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas.
Term
Informal norm
Definition
A norm that is generally understood but not precisely recorded.
Term
Invention
Definition
The combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not exist before.
Term
Material culture
Definition
The physical or technological aspects of our daily lives.
Term
Nonmaterial culture
Definition
Ways of using material objects as well as customs, beliefs, philosophies,
governments, and patterns of communication.
Term
Culture
Definition
The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior.
Term
Culture shock
Definition
The feeling of surprise and disorientation that people experience when they encounter cultural practices that are different from their own.
Term
Innovation
Definition
The process of introducing a new idea object into a culture through discovery or invention.
Term
Law
Definition
Governmental social control.
Term
Language
Definition
An abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture; includes gestures and other nonverbal communication.
Term
Mores
Definition
Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.