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Chapter 35 & 36
Chapter 35 & 36
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Biology
02/28/2012

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Term
What are the three basic organs found in plants?
Definition
Roots, stems, leaves
Term
What functions do roots serve in plants?
Definition
anchor the plant, absorb minerals and water, storing organic nutrients
Term
What function do root hairs serve in plants?
Definition
absorbing water & minerals, increase surface area
Term
Describe the modified root system (structure & function) of prop roots
Definition
Support
Term
Describe the modified root system (structure & function)of storage roots
Definition
thickened by storing organic chemicals (Carbs, protein)
Term
Describe the modified root system (structure & function)of aerial roots
Definition
live on top of ground and absorb minerals from atmosphere; or climbing
Term
Describe the modified root system(structure & function) of pneumatophores
Definition
gas exchange in plants that live underwater
Term
What functions do stems serve in plants?
Definition
Raise the leaves to maximize photosynthesis, transport water & nuits
Term
Describe the modified stems (basic structure and function) and give an example of rhizomes
Definition
hortizontal underground stems, asexual reproduction & storage of nuits; ex Ginger 'Root'
Term
Describe the modified stems (basic structure and function) and give an example of stolons
Definition
above ground horizontal stem; asexual reproduction, like the plant Dallas gave me
Term
Describe the modified stems (basic structure and function) and give an example of tubers
Definition
swollen shoot tip of a rhizome, storage & asexual reproduction; example - white potatoes
Term
Describe the modified stems (basic structure and function) and give an example of corms
Definition
flattened stem for storage and asexual reproduction, banana
Term
Describe the modified stems (basic structure and function) and give an example of thorns
Definition
outgrowths from stems for protection from herbivores
Term
Describe the modified stems (basic structure and function) and give an example of tendrils
Definition
can be leaves or stems, for climbing. Ex- grape
Term
Functions of leaves in plants
Definition
photosynthesis
Term
Describe the modified leaves found in plants (basic structure and function) and give an example of bulbs
Definition
storage, ex- onions
Term
Describe the modified leaves found in plants (basic structure and function) and give an example of tendrils
Definition
for climbing, vining plants
Term
Describe the modified leaves found in plants (basic structure and function) and give an example of spines
Definition
protection from herbivores, ex- cactus
Term
storage leaves (structure, function, example)
Definition
fleshy leaves for water storage, ex- aloe,
Term
Structure and function of reproductive modified leaves
Definition
small plantlets than can be knocked off and grow into a new plant, asexual reproduction
Term
Structure and function of carnivorous modified leaves, give example
Definition
fly traps. Grow in swampy areas, nitrogen not available so they catch insects and sometimes small animals
Term
describe the modified leaves structure & function, give an example: bracts
Definition
modified leaves that are colorful for attracting pollinators, ex- red poinsetta leaves
Term
What is the function in plants of dermal tissue
Definition
outer layer or skin
Term
What is the function in plants of vascular tissue
Definition
moves water & nuits through the plant; made of xylem and phloem
Term
What is the function in plants of ground tissue
Definition
everything else (not dermal and vascular), structural, storage, metabolism
Term
Functions trichomes in plants
Definition
deter herbivores, reduces pathogen infection, reduces water loss, protects frome xcess UV radiation
Term
What is transported by xylem, what type of tissue is it, and in what direction does it move within a plant?
Definition
vascular tissue; conducts water & nuits upward
Term
What is transported by phloem, what type of tissue is it, and in what direction is it transported within a plant?
Definition
vascular tissue; conducts sugars and organic molecules from a source to a "sink"
Term
What do we mean by “sources” and “sinks” in terms of sugar movement within a plant?
Definition
source - where organic molecules are made or stoed; sink - where organic molecules are needed for energy
Term
Describe determinate and indeterminate patterns of growth, as applied to plants
Definition
indeterminate growth: growth throughout the plant's life (growth of overall plant); determinate growth: growth stops after reaching a certain size and maturity (individual plant part like a single leaf or root)
Term
What function does the root cap serve in plants?
Definition
protects apical meristem
Term
What is the function of the endodermis in roots?
Definition
innermost layer of cortex (ground tissue), selectively controls what moves into the xylem
Term
What is the function of the pericycle in roots?
Definition
outermost layer of vascular tissue, gives rise to lateral roots
Term
What is the function of the vascular cambium in plants?
Definition
produces xylem inward and phloem outward
Term
What does secondary xylem become in a mature plant?
Definition
wood
Term
What causes the “rings” we see in woody stems?
Definition
where early wood (large cells) and late wood (small cells)meet; vascular tissue as an outer bounday
Term
What information can be obtained by analyzing tree rings?
Definition
length and conditions of growth season, forest fires, age
Term
Why is it NOT a good idea to girdle a tree (i.e., remove a strip of bark all the way around the tree)?
Definition
will remove phloem and kill the tree
Term
Explain how the type of plant obtain nutrients – either in addition to or instead of photosynthesis; epiphytes
Definition
get water and nuits from rain & environment, grow on host plant but do not affect it
Term
Explain how the type of plant obtain nutrients – either in addition to or instead of photosynthesis; parasitic plants
Definition
absorbs sugars and minerals from living host plants
Term
Explain how the type of plant obtain nutrients – either in addition to or instead of photosynthesis; carnivorous plants
Definition
photosynthetic obtains nitrogen by killing and digesting prey
Term
Organ
Definition
several types of tissues that together carry out specific functions
Term
Tissue
Definition
group of cells with a common structure/function; 3 types in plants- dermal, vascular, ground
Term
Taproot system
Definition
one main vertical root that gives rise to the lateral roots VV; adapted to heavy, clay soils and a low water table; either have this or fibrous
Term
Lateral (branch) roots
Definition
roots coming off of the taproot
Term
Fibrous root system
Definition
many lateral roots with no main root; adapted to sandy or loamy soil and a high water tabe
Term
Adventitious roots
Definition
arise from stems or leaves
Term
Node (on a stem)
Definition
leaf attachment site
Term
Internode (on a stem)
Definition
region between nodes
Term
Apical bud (terminal bud)
Definition
tip of the stem(shoot) allows for ellongation
Term
Axillary bud (lateral bud)
Definition
grows off of stem near nodes, has potential to form a lateral shoot (branch)
Term
Blade (of a leaf)
Definition
leaf itself
Term
Petiole (of a leaf)
Definition
attachment piece for leave to stem
Term
Leaf sheath
Definition
wraps around the stem
Term
Sessile leaf
Definition
has no petiole
Term
Veins (of a leaf)
Definition
vascular bundle of xylem and phloem
Term
Tissue system
Definition
each of the three types forms a system that is connected through the plant
Term
Epidermis
Definition
in dermal tissues, a single layer of tightly packed cells that covers the outer body
Term
Cuticle
Definition
waxy coating on surface of the epidermis, reduces water loss
Term
Periderm
Definition
cork filled outer covering that replaces epidermis in woody plants
Term
Trichome
Definition
hair-like outgrowth of epidermal cells
Term
Meristem
Definition
analagous to embryonic tissue
Term
Apical meristem
Definition
at the tips of roots & shoots, at the axillary buds of shoots; elongate shoots and roots called PRIMARY GROWTH
Term
Lateral meristem
Definition
add thickness to woody plants = SECONDARY GROWTH, two types are vascular and cork cambium
Term
Vascular cambium
Definition
adds layers of vascular tissues, internal cylinder, secondary growth, xylem to inside and phloem to outside
Term
Cork cambium
Definition
produces cork cells with waxy substance for structure, support, and protection
Term
Primary growth
Definition
elongation of shoots and roots; produces all tissues
Term
Mesophyll
Definition
leaf ground tissue, middle of the leaf
Term
Palisade mesophyll
Definition
toward upper epidermis (surface), packed with chloroplasts, where most of photosynthesis occurs
Term
Spongy mesophyll
Definition
toward lower epidermis, has a lot of air spaces for helping with gas exchange around stomata
Term
Secondary growth
Definition
adding thickness to stems and roots, adds secondary xylem to inside and secondary phloem to outside
Term
Early wood
Definition
secondary xylem becomes wood, early wood produced in early spring, large cells growing inward
Term
Late wood
Definition
secondary xylem becomes wood, late wood produced in late summer/fall, smaller cells growing inward
Term
Dendrochronology
Definition
analysis of tree ring growth patterns
Term
Heartwood
Definition
oldest, inner layers of secondary xylem, non functional
Term
Sapwood
Definition
outer, functional layers of secondary xylem
Term
Bark
Definition
all the tissues externa to vascular cambium, includes secondary phloem and periderm (cork and cork cambium)
Term
Lenticels
Definition
pores in the periderm for gas exchange, always open
Term
Transpiration
Definition
negative pressure of pull, pulls water upwards due to evaporation by adhesion (sticking to side walls) and cohesion (sticking to each other)
Term
Translocation
Definition
products of photosynthesis are transported through the phloem, like squeezing
Term
pith
Definition
ground tissue that is internal to vascular tissue bundles
Term
cortex
Definition
ground tissue that is external to vascular tissue bundles
Term
primary xylem & phloem correspond with which type of growth?
Definition
primary growth
Term
cortex
Definition
ground tissue
Term
cork cambium
Definition
produces cork cells filled with waxy substance for structure, support, and protection
Term
Secondary phloem becomes what?
Definition
Bark
Term

Structure of root cap, apical meristem, root hair, epidermis, cortex

(Image)

Definition
[image]
Term

Structure of Tissues in Plants

(cross-section image)

Definition
[image]
Term

Primary Root Growth

(Image)

Definition
[image]
Term

Leaf Tissue Structure

(Image)

Definition
[image]