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Chapter 3
Sources and Bodily Effects of Drugs
15
Pharmacology
09/05/2010

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Term
Identify the five sources of drugs
Definition
Plants, animals, minerals, synthetic and DNA recombinant
Term
Differentiate between the following: drug actions and drug effects, systemic effects and local effects, loading dose and maintenance dose, and toxic dose and lethal dose
Definition
  • Drug Actions - Cellular changes
  • Drug Effects - physiological change
  • Systematic effects - Reaches widespread areas of the body
  • Local effects - Limited to the area of the body where it is administered
  • Loading dose - Initial high dose often maximum dose) used to quickly elevate the level of the drug in the blood (often followed by the series of lower maintenance doses)
  • Maintenance dose - Dose required to keep the drug blood level at a steady state in order to maintain the desired effect
  • Toxic dose - Amount of drug that will produce harmful side effects or symptoms of poisoning
  • Lethal dose - Dose that cause death
Term
Define the following processes as they relate to the passage of drugs through the body and give conditions that may decrease the effectiveness of each: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
Definition
  • Absorption - Passage of a substance through a membrane into the blood stream e.g. mouth.(Contraindication - giving certain antibiotics after meas instead of on an empty stomach)
  • Distribution - Circulatory system through capillaries and across cell membranes e.g. IV. (Contraindication - poor circulation)
  • Metabolism - Physical and chemical alterations that a substance undergoes in the body e.g. liver. (Contraindication - damaged liver)
  • Excretion - Eliminating waste products of drug metabolism from the body e.g. kidney, lungs, sweat glands or intestines. (Contraindication - renal damage or kidney failure)
Term
Define the following terms: selective distribution, toxicity, placebo, synergism, potentiation, and antagonism
Definition
  • Selective distribution - An affinity or attraction, of a drug to a specific organ or cells. Ex. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone is used as a fertility drug and has a selective distribution to the ovaries
  • Toxicity - A condition that results from exposure to either a poison or dangerous amount of a drug that is normally safe when given in a smaller amount
  • Placebo - An inactive substance that resembles a medication although no drug is present
  • Synergism - The action of two drugs working together in which one helps the other simultaneously for an effect that neither could produce alone
  • Potentiation - The action of two drugs in which one prolongs or multiplies the effect of the other
  • Antagonism - The opposing action of two drugs in which one decreases or cancels out the effect of the other
Term
List several variables that may affect the action of drugs
Definition
Age, weight, gender and psychological state
Term
Identify the fastest route of drug administration
Definition
Intravenous is the fastest
Term
Define the following undesirable drug effects: teratogenic effect, idiosyncrasy, tolerance, dependence, hypersensitivity, and anaphylactic reaction
Definition
  • Teratogenic effect - Effect from maternal drug administration that causes the development of physical defect in a fetus
  • Idiosyncrasy - Unique, unusual, and unexpected response to a drug
  • Tolerance -  Decreased response to a drug that develops after repeated doses are given
  • Dependence - Acquired need for a drug that may produce psychological or physical symptoms of withdrawal when the drug is discontinued
  • Hypersensitivity - Immune response (allergy) to a drug may be of varying degrees
  • Anaphylactic reaction - Severe, possibly fatal, allergic (hypersensitivity) response
Term
Adverse drug effects
Definition
Unintended side effects from medications
Term
Dosage
Definition
 The amount of a drug given for a particular therapeutic or desired effect
Term
Drug interactions
Definition
Desirable or undesirable result
Term
Drug processes
Definition
Biological changes; absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
Term
Effects of drugs
Definition
Physiological change
Term
Source of drugs
Definition
Plant, mineral, animal, synthetic, and recombinant DNA
Term
Therapeutic range
Definition
The range of drug levels in the blood that will give the desired effect without causing serious side effects
Term
Variables
Definition
Affect the speed and efficiency of drugs being processed by the body