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Chapter 2
The Biological Perspective
43
Psychology
02/08/2009

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Term
The function of the __________ is to cary information to and from all parts of the body.
Definition
Nervous System
Term
The two main divisions of the nervous system are the _____ and ______.
Definition
Central and Peripheral
Term
A specialized cell that makes up the nervous system that receives and sends messages within that system is called _______.
Definition
Neuron
Term
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and keeps the entire cell cell alive and functioning is the ______.
Definition
Soma
Term
______ receive messages from other neurons and ______ send messages to other neurons.
Definition
Dendrites and Axon
Term
What are two roles of glial cells?
Definition
Getting nutrients to neurons.
Term
A fatty substances that is wrapped around the shaft of axons in the nervous system and whose function is to insulate neurons and speed up the neural impulse is called a ______.
Definition
Myelin
Term
Juan's toe was severed and was quickly sewn back on by a surgeon. As a result, he regained some function and felling in his toe. Which of the following are responsible for Juan's ability to regain function and feeling in his toe?
Definition
Term
"All or none" is the principle stating that _____.
Definition
Neurons are either firing at full strength or not at all.
Term
A chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that, when released, has an effect on the next cell is called _______.
Definition
Neurotransmitters
Term
The fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell is called the______.
Definition
Synapse
Term
_____ neurotransmitters make it more likely that a neuron will send its message to other neurons, whereas ________ neurotransmitters make it less likely that a neuron will send its message,
Definition
Excitory and Inhibitory

Term
Your teacher asks you to describe the sequence of parts of a neuron that the impulse travels during neural conduction. Which of the following sequences will you offer?
Definition
Dendrites, Axon, Soma, Symatic, Knob
Term
_____ plays a critical role as a neurotransmitter that stimulates muscles to contract.
Definition
Acetylcholine
Term
Sara has been experiencing a serious memory problem. An interdisciplinary team has ruled out a range of causes and believes that a neurotransmitter is involved. Which neurotransmitter is most likely involved in this problem?
Definition
Acetyicholine
Term
Which neurotransmitter is associated with sleep, mood, and appetite?
Definition
Serotonin
Term
Endorphins are _______.
Definition
Pain - Controlling chemicals in the body.
Term
The central nervous system consists of ______.
Definition
Brain and Spine
Term
MAry put her hand on a hot stove. Which neuron is responsible for sending a pain message up her spinal column, where it would then enter into the main area of the cord?
Definition
Sensory Neuron
Term
The peripheral nervous system consists of _______.
Definition
Nerves and Neurons not in the spine or brain.
Term
As Molly is walking across campus, a car swerves towards her. Her heart races and sweat breaks out as she jumps out of harm's way. this mobilization of energy is due to the action of Molly's ______.
Definition
Sympathetic Nervous System
Term
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal ad is responsible for day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands is called the _____.
Definition
Parasympathetic Division
Term
Small metal disks pasted onto Miranda's scalp are connected by wire to a machine that translates the electrical energy from her brain into wavy lines on a moving piece of paper. From this description, it is evident that Miranda's brain is being studied through the use of _____.
Definition
Electroencephalograph
Term
Rashad is in the hospital and is about to undergo a brain-imaging process that involves placing him inside a magnetic field so that a computer can create three-dimensional images of his brain. What procedure is he about to undergo?
Definition
MRI
Term
Which of the following is a brain-imaging method in which radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer complies a color-coded image of the activity of the brain, with lighter colors indicating more activity?
Definition
PET Scan
Term
The _____ is a structure in the brain stem responsible for life-sustaining functions, such as breathing and heart rate.
Definition
Medulla
Term
A college student is having difficulty staying awake during the day and sleeping through the night. Her difficulties are MOST likely due to problem in the ______.
Definition
PONS
Term
What is the main function of the reticular formation?
Definition
Responsible for the ability to selectively attend to obtain information.
Term
Which of the following coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement?
Definition
Cerebellum
Term
Which of the following is a group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation?
Definition
Amygdata
Term
What part of the brain acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information?
Definition
Thalamus
Term
Eating, drinking, sexual behavior, sleeping, and temperature control are most strongly influenced by the ______.
Definition
Hypothalamus
Term
If you have a problem remembering things that happened a year ago, doctors might check for damage to the ______ area of the brain.
Definition
Hippothalamus
Term
The _____ instantly assesses anger or threat.
Definition
Amygdata
Term
The thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the ______.
Definition
Corpus Caliosum
Term
The section of the brain responsible for interpreting the visual information in the primary visual cortex is called the ______.
Definition
Accipital Lobe
Term
Which of the following regions contains the auditory cortex?
Definition
Temporal Lobe
Term
Which of the following lobes are involved in planning, memory, and personality?
Definition
Frontal Lobe
Term
Bill was admitted to the hospital last week after he fell. When Bill's son visited, he found his father was unable to get words out in a smooth, connected fashion. If Bill's difficulty speaking is due to brain damage, what is the likely location of the damage?
Definition
Brocasrea
Term
Which of the following is a function of the right hemisphere?
Definition
Perception, Expression of emotion and pattern
Term
Hormones are _____.
Definition
Chemicals released in the blood stream by endocrine glands.
Term
Which endocrine gland controls all of the other endocrine glands?
Definition
Pituitary Gland
Term
The hormone released by the pineal gland that reduces body temperature and prepares you fro sleep is ______.
Definition
Melatonin