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Chapter 21 Quiz 1
Final Practice
20
Biology
05/10/2011

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Term
A person with a relatively high concentration of diphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) inside his red blood cells would be expected to have:
Definition
hemoglobin with reduced oxygen affinity.
Term
What circulatory problem leads most directly to the formation of varicose veins?
Definition
malfunctioning valves in veins
Term
Which of the following statements is FALSE about breathing oxygen from air or water?
Definition
Water can hold more oxygen than air can, in an equal volume.
Term
Which of the following is NOT a likely characteristic of an organism that relies on simple diffusion for respiration?
Definition
low surface area to volume ratio.
Term
Birds and mammals have similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?
Definition
All of the above are correct statements.
Term
Llama hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen. This is because:
Definition
llamas evolved under conditions where the oxygen concentration (pO2) of the air is lower.
Term

When it comes to acquiring fuel and raw materials, why does the size of a multicellular eukaryotic organism matter? Choose the BEST explanation.
Definition
Larger organisms are made of more cells, most of which are no longer in direct contact with the outside world.
Term
Which of the following is NOT a major difference between open and closed circulatory systems?
Definition
Open systems are only found in flat organisms, while closed systems are found in organisms with more complex shape
Term
Which of the following is NOT a typical type of lung damage that smoking causes?
Definition
All of the above are typical of the damage smoking causes.
Term
Why do many fish swim with their mouths open?
Definition
They do this to ventilate their gills.
Term
Organisms with an open circulatory system:
Definition
pump fluid throughout the spaces of their body cavity where it mixes with tissue fluids.
Term
Amphibians and reptiles have very similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?
Definition
Both systems have two atria and one ventricle, but in the amphibians, the ventricle is divided into two halves.
Term
Which of the following statements is NOT true about the diving adaptations of marine mammals like the Weddell seal?
Definition
Seals increase their blood pressure when they dive
Term
Which of the following is LEAST conducive to the acquisition of oxygen from the environment?
Definition
warm water
Term
Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?
Definition
All of the above are correct.
Term
Which of the following is the correct pathway air takes during a human inhalation?
Definition
nasal passage; pharynx; trachea; bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli
Term
Which of the following statements about the crocodilian circulatory system is FALSE?
Definition
Crocodiles have open circulatory systems.
Term
Which of the following is NOT a component of the blood plasma?
Definition
leukocytes
Term
Why is countercurrent exchange of oxygen in fish gills so efficient?
Definition
It maintains a concentration gradient between the water and the bloodstream for the entire time that the water and blood vessel are in close contact.
Term

Hearts found in organisms with open circulatory systems usually pumps the hemolymph directly into
Definition
extracellular spaces.