Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method.
chapter 1 key terms
36
Sociology
03/29/2010

Additional Sociology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Sociology
Definition
the systematic study of human society.
Term
Sociological Perspective
Definition
The point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people.
Term
Society
Definition
groups of people that shape our decisions.
Term
Global Perspective
Definition
The study of the larger world and our society’s place in it.
Term
Positivism
Definition
Comte’s Approach -- a scientific approach to knowledge based on “positive” facts as opposed to mere speculation.
Term
Theory
Definition
a statement of how and why specific facts are related.
Term
Social Structure
Definition
any relatively stable pattern of social behavior.
Term
Theoretical Approach
Definition
a basic image of society that guides thinking and research.
Term
Feminism
Definition
support of social equality for women and men.
Term
Social Functions
Definition
the consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole.
Term
Manifest Functions
Definition
the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.
Term
Latent Functions
Definition
the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern.
Term
Social Dysfunctoin
Definition
any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society.
Term
Macro-Level Orientations
Definition
a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole.
Term
Micro-Level Orientation
Definition
a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations.
Term
Positivist Sociology
Definition
the study of society based on scientific observation of social
Behavior.
Term
Interpretive Sociology
Definition
the study of society that focuses on discovering the meanings people attach to their social world.
Term
Critical Sociology
Definition
the study of society that focuses on the need for social change.
Term
Empirical Evidence
Definition
information we can verify with our senses
Term
Science
Definition
a logical system that develops knowledge from direct, systematic observation.
Term
Concept
Definition
a mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in a simplified form.
Term
Variable
Definition
a concept whose value changes from case to case.
Term
Measurement
Definition
a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case.
Term
Reliability
Definition
consistency in measurement
Term
Validity
Definition
actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure.
Term
Descriptive Statistics
Definition
used by sociologists to state what is “average” for a large population.
Mean – the arithmetic average of all measures.
Median – the score at the halfway point in an ascending series of numbers
Mode – the score that occurs most often
Term
Correlation
Definition
a relationship in which two or more variables change together
Term
Cause and Effect
Definition
a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another.
Term
Gender
Definition
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being male or female.
Term
Experiment
Definition
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions.
Term
Research Method
Definition
a systematic plan for doing research. (experiments, surveys, observation etc.)
Term
Survey
Definition
a research method in which subjects respond to a series of questions or statements in a questionnaire or interview.
Term
Participant Observation
Definition
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routines activities.
Term
Stereotype
Definition
a simplified description applied to every person in a category.
Term
Peter Berger
Definition
described the sociological perspective as seeing the general in the particular.
Term
Emilie Durkheim
Definition
one of sociology’s pioneers, showed that social forces are at work even in an intensely personal action (such as suicide).