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Chapter 19 Vocab
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History
01/13/2009

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Term
Henry W. Grady
Definition
The major prophet of the "New South" philosophy and editor of the Atlanta Constitution.
Term
New South
Definition
developed after the Civil War and centered on the belief that the South must abandon its single-minded preoccupation with agriculture and pursue industrial and commercial development.
Term
James Buchanan Duke
Definition
Southern industrialist behind the American Tobacco Company and Southern Power Company who made great advances in the businesses of tobacco and hydroelectric power.
Term
American Tobacco Company
Definition
Controlled nine-tenths of the nation's cigarette production in 1890 and about three-fourths of all tobacco production in 1904; broken up in 1911 for violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
Term
sharecropping
Definition
 The practice of farmers working land owned by others in return for supplies and a share of the crop, generally about half.
Term
tenancy
Definition
The practice of farmers, who might have their own mule, plow, and line of credit with the country store, working land owned by others in exchange for a larger share of the return than sharecroppers, commonly three-fourths of the cash crop and two-thirds of the subsistence crop.
Term
crop lien system
Definition
Country merchants furnished supplies to small farmers in return for liens (or mortgages) on their crops.
Term
Redeemers or Bourbons
Definition
Southern politicians who were collectively known as Redeemers by their supporters, because they supposedly saved the South from Yankee domination after the Civil War and a purely rural economy, or Bourbons by their opponents, who believed they were reactionaries rather than progressives.
Term
convict leasing
Definition
Southern states avoided expenses and generated revenues after the Civil War by leasing convicts, most of whom were black, as cheap labor to the railroads, mines, and lumber and turpentine camps.
Term
“Negrophobia”
Definition
Resentment and bitterness towards blacks that swept across the South and much of the nation at the end of the century.
Term
poll tax
Definition
Poll taxes (or head taxes) owed per adult most heavily affected blacks and poor whites. They were used as a device to indirectly disenfranchise blacks.
Term
Mississippi Plan
Definition
changed the suffrage provisions of the state constitution by instituting residency, literacy, and other requirements that effectively disenfranchised blacks and many poor whites.
Term
understanding clause
Definition
 An alternative to the literacy clause in the Mississippi plan designed as a loophole for whites otherwise disqualified from voting; the understanding clause stated that the voter, if unable to read the Constitution, could qualify by being able to "understand" it-to the satisfaction of the registrar.
Term
grandfather clause
Definition
allowed illiterates to qualify as voters if their fathers or grandfathers had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867, when blacks were still excluded.
Term
Jim Crow
Definition
Name of a stock character from old minstrel shows that came to be applied to laws mandating public segregation of the races.
Term
separate but equal
Definition
 A slogan popular with the "New South" prophets that played out in state laws requiring separate facilities for people of different races.
Term
Plessy v. Ferguson
Definition
Homer Plessy, who had one-eighth black ancestry, was arrested and convicted for refusing to leave a railroad car designated for white passengers only, in violation of the Louisiana law. His appeal rose to the Supreme Court, which decided in 1896 that segregation laws were within the rights of the states.
Term
Ida B. Wells
Definition
Outspoken black activist and journalist who helped found the NAACP and advocated women's suffrage as well as full equality.
Term
Booker T. Washington
Definition
Educator and leading black spokesman who argued that blacks should first establish an economic base for their advancement; Washington's critics accused him of sacrificing the issues of broad education and of civil rights for the dubious acceptance of white conservatives and economic opportunities.
Term
W.E.B. Du Bois
Definition
 Scholar, author, and editor of the journal The Crisis, who had an active career in racial protest, advocating a program of "ceaseless agitation" against disenfranchisement and legalized segregation.
Term
Atlanta Compromise
Definition
1895 speech by Booker T. Washington to the Cotton States and International Exposition; given its derisive name by W. E. B. Du Bois, who criticized Washington for encouraging blacks to accommodate segregation and disenfranchisement for economic opportunities.
Term
Great American Desert
Definition
 Arid region of the Great Plains that acted as a barrier to cross on the way to the Pacific and a refuge for Indians but changed in the last half of the nineteenth century as a result of new finds of gold, silver, and other minerals, completion of transcontinental railroads, destruction of the buffalo, the collapse of Indian resistance, the rise of the range-cattle industry, and the dawning realization that the arid region need not be a sterile desert.
Term
Exodusters
Definition
Thousands of blacks who migrated west from the South in the aftermath of the collapse of Radical Republican, in search of a haven from racism and poverty.
Term
Forty-niners
Definition
Speculators who went to northern California following the discovery of gold; the first of several years of large-scale migration was 1849.
Term
hydraulic mining
Definition
A form of mining that employs water to dislodge rock material or move sediment.
Term
Indian Peace Commission
Definition
Established in 1867 to end the Indian wars in the West, the commission's solution was to contain the Indians in a system of reservations
Term
George A. Custer
Definition
Lieutenant-Colonel who in 1876, after several indecisive encounters, found the main encampment of Sioux and their Northern Cheyenne allies on the Little Bighorn River; Custer's detachment of 210 soldiers was surrounded by 2,500 warriors and annihilated.
Term
Battle of Little Big Horn.
Definition
Most famous battle of the Great Sioux War took place in 1876 in the Montana Territory; combined Sioux and Cheyenne warriors massacred a vastly outnumbered U.S. Cavalry commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer.
Term
Chief Joseph
Definition
Chief of the Nez Perces who directed a masterful campaign against overwhelming odds, one of the most spectacular feats in the history of Indian warfare.
Term
Geronimo
Definition
 A chief of the Chiricahua Apaches who fought encroachments in the Southwest for fifteen years but was captured in 1886.
Term
Battle of Wounded Knee
Definition
Last incident of the Indians Wars took place in 1890 in the Dakota Territory, where the U.S. Cavalry killed over 200 Sioux men, women, and children who were in the process of surrender.
Term
Gustavus Swift
Definition
\Developer of an efficient system of mechanical refrigeration, an innovation that earned him a fortune and provided a major stimulus to the growth of the cattle industry.
Term
barbed wire
Definition
First practical fencing material for the Great Plains was invented in 1873 by Joseph Glidden and rapidly spelled the end of the open range.
Term

Fence Cutter's War

Definition
Violent conflict in Texas, 1883-84, between large and small cattle ranchers over access to grazing land.
Term
Homestead Act
Definition
Authorized Congress in 1862 to grant 160 acres of public land to a western settler, who had only to live on the land for five years to establish title.
Term
Newlands Reclamation Act
Definition
Act of 1901 that set up the Bureau of Reclamation to develop irrigable lands; responsible for such major projects as Boulder (later Hoover) Dam on the Nevada-Arizona line, Roosevelt Dam in Arizona, and Elephant Butte Dam and Arrowrock Dam in New Mexico.
Term
sodhouse
Definition
 Homes roofed with sod that sprung up along the frontier.
Term
Code of the West
Definition
In the absence of laws governing the open range, the cattle ranchers at first worked out a code of action largely dictated by circumstances.
Term
Frederick Jackson Turner
Definition
 Historian who developed the influential thesis of the frontier as the westward-moving source of America's democratic politics, open society, unfettered economy, and rugged individualism, first outlined in the paper "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" of 1893.