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Chapter 13 Leader
Chapter 13 Leader
67
Business
02/16/2012

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Term
Culture
Definition
Everything that the people in a society have learned and share through traditions, pass on to children, and teach new members
Term
Examples of parts of culture
Definition
Religion, beliefs, political ideologies, values, customs, foods language, gender roles, sexuality, and many other aspects of everyday life
Term
Values
Definition
Ideas that a person or group believes to be right or wrong, good or bad, attractive or undesirable
Term
Examples of value
Definition
Freedom, truth, justice, sex, marriage, raising children
Term
Attitudes
Definition
A group of ideas, values, beliefs, and feelings that predispose a person to react to a thing, a situation, another person, or a group in a certain way
Term
Norms
Definition
Internalized standards for behavior that support agreed-upon ways of doing things and what people expect of one another within a cultural group
Term
Examples of norms
Definition
How we dress/behave at formal gathering, how we greet one another,how we behave with friends vs family vs coworkers
Term
Folkways
Definition
Guidelines, routine conventions of everyday life
Term
Mores
Definition
Stricter social rules, norms that are central to the functioning of society
Term
Examples of folkways
Definition
Appropriate dress and good social manners
Term
Examples of mores
Definition
Society's stance on murder, rape, sexuality
Term
Violation of folkways vs mores
Definition
Folkways: looked as odd or weird
Mores:face serious reprisals, face trial or jail
Term
Organizational culture
Definition
A set of shared values, norms, and assumptions that guide peoples' behavior within a group, business, or institution
Term
Hofstede's five dimensions of culture
Definition
Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs collectivism, masculinity vs femininity, long-term vs short-term orientation
Term
Power distance
Definition
Extent of which people in societies accept the idea that power is distributed unequally
Term
Uncertainty avoidance
Definition
Degree to which people can tolerate unpredictable, ambiguous, or uncertain situations
Term
Individualism
Definition
Degree to which people prefer to act in their own self-interest instead of acting on what is best for the group as a whole
Term
Collectivism
Definition
Degree to which people prefer to act as members of a group (rather than as individuals) in exchange for loyalty and the benefits of membership
Term
Masculinity/femininity
Definition
Extent to which society values achieving (masculine) versus nurturing (feminine)
Term
Long-term orientation
Definition
Refers to a greater concern for the future and for values such as thrift, perserverance, and avoidance of shame
Term
Short-term orientation
Definition
Refers to a desire for gratification of personal needs, as well as a focus on tradition and meeting social obligations
Term
GLOBE Project Value Dimensions
Definition
Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, future orientation, institutional collectivism, assertiveness, gender differentiation, in-group collectivism, performance orientation, humane orientation
Term
GLOBE Power distance
Definition
Degree to which members of a society expect an unequal distribution of power
Term
Uncertainty avoidance
Definition
Extent to which members of a society rely on social norms and procedures to diminish unpredictability
Term
Future orientation
Definition
Extent to which a society encourages and rewards future-oriented behaviors
Term
Institutional collectivism
Definition
Extent to which the members of a society are encouraged and take pride in being part of collective actions
Term
Assertiveness
Definition
Extent to which a society encourages people to be tough, assertive, and confrontational
Term
Gender Differentiation
Definition
Extent to which a society maximizes gender role differentiation and how much status and decision-making responsibility is given to women
Term
In-group Collectivism
Definition
Extent to which members of a society take pride in being members of small groups within the society, such as families, close circles of friends, teams, and the organizations in which they work
Term
Performance orientation
Definition
Degree to which a society rewards group members for performance improvements and excellence
Term
Humane orientation
Definition
Degree to which a society encourages and rewards people for being members of small groups within the society, such as families, close circles of friends, teams, and the organizations in which they work
Term
Performance orientation
Definition
Degree to which a society rewards groups members for performance improvements and excellence
Term
Human orientation
Definition
Degree to which a society encourages and rewards people for being fair, altruistic, generous, and kind to others
Term
Power distance highs and lows
Definition
High: Focus on status and power, leaders expect deference from their subordinates
Low: Favor participative decision making and egalitarian relationships
Term
Uncertainty avoidance highs and lows
Definition
High: value structure and clear expectations
Low: Do not value rules and procedures and accept ambiguity
Term
Future orientation highs and lows
Definition
High: Plan for future and delay gratification
Low: focus on short-term results and seek instant gratification
Term
Institutional collectivism highs and lows
Definition
High: Allocates resources so that all members can participate in economic,social, and political processes, greater emphasis on group goals than individual goals
Low: Encourages self-interest, rewards based on individual performance
Term
Assertiveness highs and lows
Definition
High: Encourages and rewards toughness, a certain degree of forcefulness, and competitiveness
Low: Values gentleness and modesty
Term
Gender differentiation highs and lows
Definition
High: Grant one gender higher status
Low: More equal status to men and women
Term
In-group collectivism highs and lows
Definition
High: Provide benefits for families or have structures encouraging groups to get together to socialize
Low: Less emphasis on importance of the nuclear family and more on allegiance to country
Term
Performance orientation highs and lows
Definition
High: Value training and development and believe in taking initiative
Low: Feel uncomfortable with feedback
Term
Humane orientation highs and lows
Definition
High: Focus on human relations and sympathy
Low: Motivated by material possessions
Term
Competing values framework
Definition
Model that shows how cultures can be measured along two axes: structure (stability versus flexibility) and focus (internal versus external)
Term
Clan Culture
Definition
A culture that has an internal focus and encourages flexibility
Term
Hierarchy Culture
Definition
Culture that has an internal focus and encourages stability and control
Term
Adhocracy culture
Definition
Culture that has an external focus and encourages flexibility
Term
Market culture
Definition
Culture that has an external focus and encourages stability and control
Term
Balanced culture
Definition
Culture that has values linked to each of the culture domains of the competing values framework, and all of these values are perceived to be important and are held by organization members quite strongly
Term
Strong culture
Definition
Culture in which central values and norms are shared and strongly upheld by most members of the organization
Term
Weak culture
Definition
Culture in which the values and norms are shared by a limited group of people and employees' goals may not be in line with management's goals
Term
Edgar Schein's Levels of Culture
Definition
Top: Observable artifacts
Middle: Values and attitudes
Bottom: Basic assumptions
Term
Observable artifacts
Definition
Aspects of a culture that can be seen, heard, or experienced by an organization's members
Term
Observable artifacts examples
Definition
Dress code, language and jargon, interpersonal relationships, technology, workspace, ceremonies, rituals, awards
Term
Values
Definition
Espoused and enacted
Term
Espoused values
Definition
Explicit values that are preferred by an organization and communicated deliberately to the organization's members
Term
Enacted values
Definition
Values that are actually exhibited in an organization
Term
Basic assumptions
Definition
Core beliefs that are deeply embedded in the organization and that are largely invisible
Term
Myths
Definition
Exaggerated stories that are told and retold to communicate values and to emphasize norms
Term
Hero
Definition
Legendary person who embodies the highest values of culture
Term
Socialization
Definition
Process of teaching new members about a culture
Term
Taboos
Definition
Strong prohibitions against certain activities (food, sexuality, religious practice, death)
Term
Sacred symbols
Definition
Things, people, and events that are untouchable and unquestionable within a culture
Term
Language
Definition
How people use words, which native language is paramount in multicultural organizations, and even body language indicators of culture
Term
Ethnography
Definition
Systematic study of human cultures including observation and co-inquiry
Term
Co-inquiry process
Definition
People observe and collaborate with on another to truly understand what is happening within their group or organization (participant observation)
Term
Dynamic inquiry
Definition
Enables organization members to uncover cultural values and the basic assumptions that drive people's behavior as well as how leadership practices affect people and the organization
Term
Appreciative inquiry
Definition
Explores people's and the organization's strengths (interviews and meetings)