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Chapter 12
First Exam
83
Psychology
10/04/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Personality
Definition
the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave
Term
Character
Definition
value judgements of a person's moral and ethical behaviors.
Term
Temperment
Definition
the enduring characteristics with which each person is born
Term
Four Perspectives in Study of Personality
Definition
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Behavioristic (including social cognitive theory)
  • Humanistic
  • Trait perspectives
Term
Sigmund Freud
Definition

founder of the psychoanalytic movement in psychology.

Europe during the Victorian Age

  • Men were understood to be unable to control their "animal" desires at times. Husbands would be known to have mistresses after having kids with his wife.
  • Women were not supposed to have sexual urges
Term
Division of Consciousness
Definition

Preconscious--level in which info is available but not currently conscious

Concious--level that is aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions

Unconscious--level in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other info are kept that are not easliy or voluntarily brought into consciousness (dreams/Freudian slips)

Term

Id

(Freud's Theory: Parts of our Personality)

Definition
part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious.
Term
Libido
Definition
the instinctual energy that may come into conflict with the demands of a society's standards for behavior
Term
Pleasure Principle
Definition
principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regards for consequences.
Term

Ego

(Freud's Theory: Parts of our Personality)

Definition
part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical
Term
Reality Principle
Definition
principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result.
Term

Superego

(Freud's Theory: Parts of our Personality)

Definition
part of personality that acts as a moral center.
Term
Ego ideal
Definition

part of the superego that contains the standards for moral behavior

 

Term
Conscience
Definition

part of superego that produces pride or guilt,
depending on how well behavior matches or
does not match the ego ideal

Term

Psychological Defense Mechanisms

(Defense Mechanisms)

Definition
unconscious distortions of a person's perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety
Term

Denial

(Defense Mechanisms)

Definition
the person refuses to acknowledge or recognize a threatening situation
Term

Repression

(Defense Mechanisms)

Definition
the person refuses to consciously remember a threatening or unacceptable event, instead pushing those events into the unconscious mind.
Term

Rationalization

(defense mechanisms)

 

 

 

 

Definition
a person invents acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior.
Term

Projection

(defense mechanisms)

Definition
unacceptable or threatening impulses or feelings are seen as originating with someone else, usually the target of the impulses or feelings
Term

Reaction formation

(defense mechanisms)

Definition
a person forms an opposite emotional or behavioral reaction to the way he or she really feels to keep those true feelings hidden from self and others.
Term

Displacement

(defense mechanisms)

Definition
redirecting feelings from a threatening target to a less threatening one
Term

Regression

(defense mechanisms)

Definition
a person falls back on childlike patterns of responding in reaction to stressful situations
Term

Identification

(defense mechanisms)

Definition
a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety
Term

Compensation (substitution)

(defense mechanisms)

Definition
a person makes up for inferiorities in one area by becoming superior in another area
Term

Sublimation

(defense mechanisms)

Definition
channeling socially unacceptable impulses and urges into socially acceptable behavior
Term

Fixation

(Freud's Theory: Stages of Personality Development)

Definition
disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage
Term

Psychosexual Stages

(Freud's Theory: Stages of Personality Development)

Definition
five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child.
Term

Oral Stage

(Freud's Theory: Stages of Personality Development)

Definition
first stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict. Id dominated.
Term

Anal Stage

(Freud's Theory: Stages of Personality Development)

Definition
second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict. Ego develops.
Term
Anal expulsive personality
Definition
a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile.
Term
Anal retentive personality
Definition
a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn
Term

Phallic Stage

(Freud's Theory: Stages of Personality Development)

Definition
third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings. Superego develops.
Term
Oedipus complex
Definition
situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent.
Term
Identification
Definition
defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety.
Term

Latency

(Freud's Theory: Stages of Personality Development)

Definition
fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways.
Term

Genital

(Freud's Theory: Stages of Personality Development)

Definition
sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets (puberty)
Term
Psychoanalysis
Definition
Freud's term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it.
Term
Neo-Freudians
Definition
followers of Freud who developed their own competing theories of psychoanalysis.
Term

Carl Jung

(Neo-Freudians)

Definition

developed a theory of a collective unconscious.

  • Personal unconscious—Jung’s name for the unconscious mind as described by Freud
  • Collective unconscious—Jung’s name for the memories shared by all members of the human species.
  • Archetypes—Jung’s collective, universal human memories.

Term

Adler

(Neo-Freudians)

 

Definition
proposed feelings of inferiority as the driving force behind personality and developed birth order theory.
Term

Horney

(Neo-Freudians)

Definition

developed a theory based on basic anxiety and rejected the concept of penis envy.

  • Basic anxiety-anxiety created when a child is born into the bigger and more powerful world of older children and adults
  • Neurotic personalities-maladaptive ways of dealing with relationships in Horney's theory
Term

Erikson

(Neo-Feudians)

Definition
developed a theory based on social rather than sexual relationships, covering the entire life span.
Term
Current research has found support for:
Definition
  1. Defense mechanisms
  2. Concept of an unconscious mind that can influence conscious behavior
  3. Othe concepts cannot be scientifically tested
Term
Behaviorists define personality as...
Definition
...a set of learned responses or habits
Term
Habits
Definition
in behaviorism, sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic
Term
Social cognitive learning theorists
Definition
theorists who emphasize the importance of both the influences of other people's behavior and of a person's own expectancies of learning.
Term
Social Cognitive view
Definition
learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of models
Term
Definition
Term
Reciprocal determinism
Definition
Bandura's explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior.
Term
Self-efficacy
Definition
individual's perception of how effective a behavior will be in any particular circumstance (NOT the same as self-esteem)
Term
Humanisitic perspective
Definition
the "third force" in psychology that focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice.
Term
Humanistic Theories of Personality
Definition
developed as a reaction against the negativity of psychoanalysis and the deterministic nature of behaviorism.
Term

Self-actualizing tendency

(Roger's Theory of Personality)

Definition
the striving to fulfill one's innate capacities and capabilities.
Term

Self-concept

(Roger's Theory of Personality)

Definition
the image of oneself that develops from interactions with important, significant people in one's life.
Term

Self

(Roger's Theory of Personality)

Definition
archetype that works with the ego to manage other archetypes and balance the personality
Term

Real Self

(Roger's Theory of Personality)

Definition
one's perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities
Term

Ideal Self

(Roger's Theory of Personality)

Definition
one's perception of whom one should be or would like to be.
Term

Positive Regard

(Roger's Theory of Personality)

Definition
warmth, affection, love, and respect that come from significant others in one's life
Term

Unconditional positive regard

(Roger's Theory of Personality)

Definition
positive regard that is given without conditions or strings attatched.
Term

Conditional positive regard

(Roger's Theory of Personality)

Definition
positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish.
Term

Fully functioning person

(Roger's Theory of Personality)

Definition
a person who is in touch with and trusting of the deepest, innermost urges and feelings.
Term
Trait Theories
Definition
theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior.
Term
Trait
Definition
a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving.
Term
Allport
Definition
first developed a list of about 200 traits and believed that these traits were part of the nervous system
Term
Cattell
Definition
reduced the number of traits to between 16 and 23 with a computer method called factor analysis.
Term
Surface traits
Definition
aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person.
Term
Source traits
Definition
the more basic traits that underlie the surface traits, forming the core of personality.
Term
Five-factor model (Big Five)
Definition

model of personality traits that describes five basic trait dimensions.

OCEAN

Term

O.C.E.A.N.

(BIG 5)

Definition

Openness-willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences

Conscientiousness-the care a person gives to organization and thoughfulness of others; dependability.

Extraversion-dimension of personality referring to one's need to be with other people.

Agreeableness-the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing; friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant.

Neuroticism-degree of emotional instability or stability.

Term
Trait Theories Today
Definition
Cross-cultural research has found supports for the Big Five model of personality traits in a number of different cultures.
Term
Trait-situation interaction
Definition
the assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed.
Term
Behavior genetics
Definition

a field of study of the relationship between heredity and personality.

Twin and adoption studies have found support for a genetic influence on many personality traits.

Term
Four basic dimensions of personality along which cultures may vary:
Definition
  1. individualism/collectivism
  2. power distance
  3. masculinity/femininity
  4. uncertainty avoidance
Term

Interview

(Measuring Personality)

Definition
method of personality assessment in which the professional asks questions of the client and allows the client to answer, either in a structured or unstructured fashion.
Term

Halo effect

(measuring personality)

Definition
tendency of an interviewer to allow positive characteristics of a client to influence the assessments of the client's behacior and statements.
Term

Projection

(measuring personality: projective tests)

Definition
defense mechanism involving placing, or "projecting," one's own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts actually belonged to those others and not to oneself.
Term

Projective Tests

(measuring personality: projective tests)

Definition
personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind.
Term

Rorschach inkblot test

(measuring personality: projective tests)

Definition
projective test that uses 10 inkblots as the ambiguous stimuli.
Term

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

(measuring personality: projective tests)

Definition
projective test that uses 20 pictures of people in ambiguous situations as the visual stimuli
Term

Subjective

(measuring personality: projective tests)

Definition
concepts and impressions that are only valid within a particular person's perception and may be influenced by biases, prejudice, and personal experiences. This is a problem with projective tests.
Term

Direct obeservation

(measuring personality: behavioral measures)

Definition
assessment in which the professional observes the client engages in ordinary, day-to-day behavior  in either a clinical or natural setting.
Term

Rating scale

(measuring personality: behavioral measures)

Definition
assessment in which a numerival value is assigned to specific behavior that is listed in the scale.
Term
Definition