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Chapter 11- Personality
Personality
21
Psychology
05/15/2011

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Term
Psychodynamic Approach (Freud)
Definition
Personality is framed by unconscious influences.
Id-immediate gratification of basic drives (especially sex and aggression) Pleasure principle.
Superego- internalized ideals and morality (rewards good and punishes bad) Perfection principle.
Ego- Tries to balance Id and Superego (personality CEO) Reality principle.
Term
Anxiety
Definition
The product of intrapsychic conflict among id, ego, and superego due to unacceptable influences.
Repression-forcing sources of conflict into unconscious.
Term
Defense Mechanisms
Definition
Unconscious coping strategies that reduce anxiety.
Displacement- diverting unacceptable impulses toward unrelated object.
Projection- attributing our own unacceptable impulses to others.
Rationalization- justifying unacceptable impulses as appropriate.
Regression- retreating to an earlier stage of development.
Reaction formation- replacing unacceptable impulses with their opposite.
Sublimation- channeling unacceptable impulse into acceptable outlets.
Term
Psychosexual Stages
Definition
Oral stage- mouth is primary source of pleasure, personality based on deprivation or indulgence.
Anal stage- pleasure of learning to control bowel movements, personality based on control/orderliness.
Phallic- pleasure from genitals, personality based on resolution of parental conflict.
Latency- through puberty with little additional development.
Genital- re-emergence of sexual interest, ability to resolve and balance needs and desires.
Term
Fixation
Definition
Unresolved conflicts within a stage due to too much/too little attention.
Term
Oedipus/Elektra Complex
Definition
Oedipus (boys)- unconscious desire for mother, father is rival, "castration anxiety"
Elektra (girls)- unconscious desire for father, wants fathers authority, "penis envy"
Term
Neo-Freudians
Definition
Horney- personality develops from social struggles, "penis envy" is sexist
Adler- personality develops from competition
Jung- collective unconscious: a common reservoir of experiences and motives based on universal human experiences (anima: unconscious femininity of men, animus: unconscious masculinity of females)
Term
Projective Tests of Personality
Definition
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)- stories based on pictures
House-Tree-Person Test- explanations of one's own drawings
Rorschach Inkblot Test- analysis of interpretations of unconstructed inkblots reveal inner feelings and personality
Self-reports- people respond to statements or questions that describe their behavior or mental state
Term
Trait Approach
Definition
Stable and enduring aspects of everyones personality.
The Five Factor Model- personality can be reduced to five distinct and consistent dimensions (conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, extraversion)
Term
Conscientiousness
Definition
organized, careful, self-disciplined

disorganized, careless, weak-willed
Term
Agreeableness
Definition
softhearted, trusting, helpful

ruthless, suspicious, uncooperative
Term
Neuroticism
Definition
worried, insecure, self-pittying

calm, secure, self-satisfied
Term
Openness to Experience
Definition
imaginative, variety, independent

down-to-earth, routine, conforming
Term
Extraversion
Definition
social, fun loving, affectionate

retiring, sober, reserved
Term
Genes and Brain
Definition
Heritability of personality=.50 (about half the differences in personality are due to genetic differences)
Reticular formation- part of hindbrain that regulates alertness and arousal (introverts show stronger reactions to very intense stimuli)
Term
Humanism
Definition
People are basically good, motivated to improve. Goal is self-actualization.
Term
Existentialism
Definition
Personality determined by choices in the context of life or death.
Term
Social Cognitive Approach
Definition
Behaviorism- personality reflects behaviors that were rewarded or punished.
B=f(P,E) Behavior is a function of personality and environment.
Reciprocal Determinism- Interactive influences of personality and environment (People choose environments based on personality, our environment helps shape our personality).
Internal locus of control- we are responsible for our own destinies, associated with positive outcomes.
External locus of control- outside forces control our destinies.
Term
Self-Concept
Definition
The way we see ourselves. Important traits that define us, the stories we tell.
Term
Self-Verification
Definition
Motivation to confirm our self-concepts, especially if others think inaccurately of ourselves.
Term
Self-Esteem
Definition
Our evaluation of ourselves.
Self-serving bias- the tendency to take credit for success but avoid responsibility for failure.

Contingencies of self worth: specific domains influenced by success/failure
Sociometer theory: self-esteem evolved to reflect social inclusion
Terror management theory: success buffers our anxiety over inevitable death