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Chapter 11
Test 3
37
Psychology
03/02/2012

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

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Term
motivation
Definition
the urge to move toward one's goals to accomplish tasks
Term
needs
Definition
inherently biological states of deficiency (cellular or bodily) that compel drives
Term
drives
Definition
the perceived states of tension that occur when our bodies are deficient in some need, creating an urge to relieve the tension
Term
incentive
Definition
any external object or event that motivates behavior
Term
homeostasis
Definition
the process by which all organisms work to maintain physiological equilibrium or balance around an optimal set point
Term
set point
Definition
the ideal fixed setting of a particular physiological system, such as internal body temperature
Term
Yerkes-Dodson law
Definition
the principle that moderate levels of arousal lead to optimal performance
Term
self-actualization
Definition
the inherent drive to realize one's full potential
Term
glucose
Definition
a simple sugar that provides energy for cells throughout the body, including the brain
Term
sexual behavior
Definition
actions that produce arousal and increase the likelihood of orgasm
Term
sexual orientation
Definition
the disposition to be attracted to either the opposite sex (heterosexual), the same sex (homosexual), or both sexes (bisexual)
Term
achievement motivation
Definition
a desire to do things well and overcome obstacles
Term
extrinsic motivation
Definition
motivation that comes from outside the person and usually involves rewards and praises
Term
intrinsic motivation
Definition
motivation that comes from within a person and includes the elements of challenge, enjoyment, mastery, and autonomy
Term
perceived organization support
Definition
employee's beliefs about how much the organization appreciates and supports their contributions and well-being
Term
emotions
Definition
brief, acute changes in conscious experience and physiology that occur in response to a personally meaningful situation
Term
moods
Definition
affective states that operate in the background of consciousness and tend to last longer than most emotions
Term
affective traits
Definition
stable predispositions toward certain types of emotional responses
Term
basic emotions
Definition
set of emotions that are common to all humans includes anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise
Term
self-conscious emotions
Definition
types of emotion that require a sense of self and the ability to reflect on actions; they occur as a function of meeting expectations (or not)and abiding (or not) by society's rules
Term
broaden-and-build model
Definition
Fredickson's model for positive emotions, which posits that they widen our cognitive perspective and help us acquire useful life skills
Term
antecedent event
Definition
a situation may lead to an emotional response
Term
appraisal
Definition
the evaluation of a situation with respect to how relevant it is to one's own welfare; drives the process by which emotions are elicited
Term
emotion regulation
Definition
the cognitive and behavioral efforts people make to modify their emotions
Term
reappraisal
Definition
an emotion regulation strategy in which one reevaluates an event so that a different emotion results
Term
expressive suppression
Definition
a response-focused strategy for regulating emotion that involves the deliberate attempt to inhibit the outward manifestation of an emotion
Term
emotional response
Definition
the physiological, behavioral/expressiveness, and subjective changes that occur when emotions are generated
Term
facial action coding system (FACS)
Definition
a widely used method for measuring all observable muscular movements that are possible in the human face
Term
Duchenne smile
Definition
a smile that expresses true enjoyment involving both the muscles that up the lip corners diagonally and those that contract the band or muscles encircling the eye
Term
universal
Definition
term referring to something that is common to all human beings and can be seen in cultures all over the world
Term
subjective experience of emotion
Definition
the changes in the quality of our conscious experience that occur during emotional responses
Term
James-Lange theory of emotion
Definition
the idea that it is the perception of the physiological changes that accompany emotion the produces the subjective emotional experience
Term
Neurocultural theory of emotion
Definition
Ekman's explanation that some aspects of emotion sucha as facial expressions and physiological changes associated with emotion, are universal and others, such as emotion regulation, are culturally derived
Term
display rules
Definition
learned norms or rules, often taught very early, about when it is appropriate to express certain emotions and to whom one should show them
Term
emotional intelligence
Definition
the ability to recognize emotions in oneself and others, empathetic understanding, and skills for regulating emotions in oneself and others
Term
life satisfaction
Definition
the overall evaluation we make of our lives and an aspect of subjective well-being
Term
subjective well-being
Definition
state that consists of life satisfaction, domain satisfactions, and positive and negative affect