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Chapter 1
What is Personality?
21
Psychology
10/04/2009

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Term
Personality Psychology
Definition
The scientific study of the psychological forces that make people uniquely themselves
Term
Scientific Inference
Definition
The use of systematically gathered evidence to test theories
Term
Correlation Coefficient
Definition
A mathematical index of the degree of agreement or association between two measures
Term
Deductive approach
Definition
An approach to psychology in which the conclusions follow logically from the premises or assumptions
Term
Inductive approach
Definition
an approach to pschology in which observations are systematically collelcted and concepts are developed based on what the data reveal
Term
Relative Self
Definition
The philosophical idea that there is no underlying self but that the true self is composed merely of masks
Term
Evolution
Definition
The theory in which individual characteristics that enable an organism to pass on genes to offspring become more prevalent in the population over generations
Term
Nomotheic
Definition
Seeking to formulate laws
Term
Idiographic
Definition
Involved int he study of individual cases
Term
Authoritarian personality
Definition
A person with anti-democratic tendencies; such a person tends to be narrow-minded, rigid, defensive, and tends to show prejudice against minority groups.
Term
Barnum Effect
Definition
The tendency to believe in the accuracy of vague generalities about one's personality.
Term
KNOW personality psychology, deductive versus inductive approach to personality,
Definition
Term
Eight perspectives on personality:
Definition
Psyschoanalytic, Neo-analytic/Ego, Biological, Cognitive, Trait, Humanistic/Existential, Interactionist
Term
Psychoanalytic
Definition
AOP: Attention to unconscious influences; importance of sexual drives even in nonsexual spheres
Term
Neo-Analytic/Ego
Definition
AOP: Emphasis on the self as it struggles to cope with emotions and drives on the inside and the demands of others on the outside.
Term
Biological
Definition
AOP: Focuses on tendencies and limits imposed by biological inheritance; can be easily combined with most other approaches
Term
Behaviorist
Definition
AOP: Can force a more scientific analysis of the learning experiences that shape personality
Term
Cognitive
Definition
AOP: Captures active nature of human thought; uses modern knowledge from cognitive psychology
Term
Trait
Definition
AOP: Good individual assessment techniques
Term
Humanistic/Existential
Definition
AOP: appreciates the spiritual nature of a person; emphasizes struggles for self-fulfillment and dignity
Term
Interactionist
Definition
AOP: Understands that we are different selves in diff situations