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Chapter 10
The Muscular System
50
Anatomy
03/11/2009

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Term
prime mover
Definition
Muscle that bears the major responsibility for effecting a particular movement; an agonist
Term
antagonsts
Definition
muscles that oppsed, or reverse a particular movement
Term
synergist
Definition
sin′er-jist) (1) Muscle that aids the action of a prime mover by effecting the same movement or by stabilizing joints across which the prime mover acts to prevent undesirable movements. (2) Hormone that amplifies the effect of another hormone at a target cell.
Term
fixators
Definition
when synergists immobilize a bone, or a muscles origin
Term
[image]
Definition
Term
circular
Definition
What is the fascicular pattern when the fascicles are arranges in concentric rings?
Term
convergent muscle
Definition
broad origin, fascicles converge toward a single tendon of insertion
Term
parallel arrangement
Definition
long axes of the fascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle; striplike or spindle shaped
Term
fusiform muscles
Definition
spindle-shaped muscle
Term
pennate pattern
Definition
fascicles are short and they attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of the muscle
Term
unipennate
Definition
the fascicles insert into only one side of the tendon
Term
multipennate
Definition
arrangemt looks like feathers situated side by side, with all their quills inserted into one large tendon
Term
bipennate
Definition
fascicles insert into the tendon from the opposite side so that the muscle's "grain" resembles a feather
Term
lever systems
Definition
Consists of a lever (bone), effort (muscle action), resistance (weight of object to be moved), and fulcrum (joint)
Term
fulcrum
Definition
fixed pointon which a lever moves when a force is applied
Term
lever
Definition
a rigid bar that moves on a fixed point
Term
effort
Definition
applied force
Term
load
Definition
resistance in the body
Term
mechanical advandage
Definition
Condition that occurs when the load is close to the fulcrum and the effort is applied far from the fulcrum; allows a small effort exerted over a relatively large distance to move a large load over a small distance
Term
mechanical disadvantage
Definition
Condition that occurs when the load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum; the effort applied must be greater than the load to be moved
Term
first-class levers
Definition
effort applied at one end of the lever and the load at the other, with the fulcrum somewhere inbetween
Term
second class lever
Definition
effort applied at one end of the lever and the fulcrum is located at the other, with the load between them
Term
third class lever
Definition
effort applied between the load and fulcrum
Term
[image]
Definition
Figure 10.4b
Term
[image]
Definition
Figure 10.5b
Term
Charley Horse
Definition
A muscle contusion, i.e., tearing of muscle followed by bleeding into the tissues (hematoma) and severe, prolonged pain; a common contact sports injury; a ___________ of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh occurs frequently in football players
Term
electromyography
Definition
Recording and interpretation of graphic records of the electrical activity of contracting muscles. Electrodes inserted into the muscles record the impulses that pass over muscle-cell membranes to stimulate contraction. The best and most important technique for determining the functions of muscles and muscle groups
Term
Hernia
Definition
An abnormal protrusion of abdominal contents (typically coils of the small intestine) through a weak point in the muscles of the abdominal wall. Most often caused by increased intra-abdominal pressure during lifting or straining. The hernia penetrates the muscle wall but not the skin and so appears as a visible bulge in the body surface. Common abdominal hernias include the inguinal and umbilical hernias.
Term
Quadriceps and hamstring strains
Definition
Also called quad and hamstring pulls, these conditions involve tearing of these muscles or their tendons; happen mainly in athletes who do not warm up properly and then fully extend their hip (quad pull) or knee (hamstring pull) quickly or forcefully (e.g., sprinters, tennis players); not painful at first, but pain intensifies within three to six hours (30 minutes if the tearing is severe). After a week of rest, stretching is the best therapy.
Term
Rupture of the calcaneal tendon
Definition
Although the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon is the largest, strongest tendon in the body, its rupture is surprisingly common, particularly in older people as a result of stumbling and in young sprinters when the tendon is traumatized during the takeoff. The rupture is followed by abrupt pain; a gap is seen just above the heel, and the calf bulges as the triceps surae are released from their insertion. Plantar flexion is weak or impossible, but dorsiflexion is exaggerated. Surgical repair of the tendon is necessary.
Term
shin splints
Definition
Common term for pain in the anterior compartment of the leg caused by irritation of the tibialis anterior muscle as might follow extreme or unusual exercise without adequate prior conditioning. Because it is tightly wrapped by fascia, the inflamed tibialis anterior cuts off its own circulation as it swells and presses painfully on its own nerves
Term
tennis elbow
Definition
Tenderness due to trauma or overuse of the tendon of origin of the forearm extensor muscles at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. Caused and aggravated when these muscles contract forcefully to extend the hand at the wrist—as in executing a tennis backhand or lifting a loaded snow shovel. Despite its name, tennis elbow does not involve the elbow joint; most cases caused by work activities.
Term
torticollis
Definition
A twisting of the neck in which there is a chronic rotation and tilting of the head to one side, due to injury of the sternocleidomastoid muscle on one side; also called wryneck. Sometimes present at birth when the muscle fibers are torn during difficult delivery. Exercise that stretches the affected muscle is the usual treatment.
Term
Definition
A muscle that assists an agonist by causing a like movement or by stabilizing a joint over which an agonist acts is (a) an antagonist, (b) a prime mover, (c) a synergist, (d) an agonist.
Term
Definition
2. A muscle in which the fibers are arranged at an angle to a central longitudinal tendon has a _______ arrangement. (a) circular, (b) longitudinal, (c) pennate, (d) parallel.
Term
Definition
. Match the muscle names in column B to the facial muscles described in column A.
Column A
(1) squints the eyes
(2) raises the eyebrows
(3) smiling muscle
(4) puckers the lips
(5) pulls the scalp posteriorly
Column B
(a) corrugator supercilii
(b) depressor anguli oris
(c) frontal belly of epicranius
(d) occipital belly of epicranius
(e) orbicularis oculi
(f) orbicularis oris
(g) zygomaticus
Term
Definition
4. The prime mover of inspiration is the (a) diaphragm, (b) internal intercostals, (c) external intercostals, (d) abdominal wall muscles.
Term
Definition
5. The arm muscle that both flexes the elbow and supinates the forearm is the (a) brachialis, (b) brachioradialis, (c) biceps brachii, (d) triceps brachii
Term
Definition
6. The chewing muscles that protrude the mandible and produce side-to-side grinding movements are the (a) buccinators, (b) masseters, (c) temporalis, (d) pterygoids.
Term
Definition
7. Muscles that depress the hyoid bone and larynx include all but the (a) sternohyoid, (b) omohyoid, (c) geniohyoid, (d) sternothyroid
Term
Definition
8. Intrinsic muscles of the back that promote extension of the spine (or head) include all but (a) splenius muscles, (b) semispinalis muscles, (c) scalene muscles, (d) erector spinae
Term
Definition
8. Intrinsic muscles of the back that promote extension of the spine (or head) include all but (a) splenius muscles, (b) semispinalis muscles, (c) scalene muscles, (d) erector spinae
Term
Definition
10. The quadriceps include all but (a) vastus lateralis, (b) vastus intermedius, (c) vastus medialis, (d) biceps femoris, (e) rectus femoris
Term
Definition
11. A prime mover of hip flexion is the (a) rectus femoris, (b) iliopsoas, (c) vasti muscles, (d) gluteus maximus.
Term
Definition
13. Muscles that cause plantar flexion include all but the (a) gastrocnemius, (b) soleus, (c) tibialis anterior, (d) tibialis posterior, (e) fibularis muscles.
Term
Definition
12. The prime mover of hip extension against resistance is the (a) gluteus maximus, (b) gluteus medius, (c) biceps femoris, (d) semimembranosus.
Term
Definition
14. In walking, which two lower limb muscles keep the forward-swinging foot from dragging on the ground? (a) pronator teres and popliteus, (b) flexor digitorum longus and popliteus, (c) adductor longus and abductor digiti minimi in foot, (d) gluteus medius and tibialis anterior.
Term
Definition
15. What criterion (or criteria) are used in naming the gluteus medius? (a) relative size, (b) muscle location, (c) muscle shape, (d) action, (e) number of origins
Term
Definition
16. Which of the following is a large, deep muscle that protracts the scapula during punching? (a) serratus anterior, (b) rhomboids, (c) levator scapulae, (d) subscapularis.
Term
Definition
17. Name four criteria used in naming muscles, and provide an example (other than those used in the text) that illustrates each criterion