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Chapter 10 - Substance-Related and Impulse-Control Disorders
Abnormal Psychology, chapter 10.
30
Psychology
10/23/2010

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Term
Substance-related disorder
Definition
One of a range of problems associated with the use and abuse of drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and other substances people use to alter the way they think, feel, and behave. These are extremely costly in human and financial terms.
Term
impulse-control disorder
Definition
Disorder in which a person acts on an irresistible, but potentially harmful, impulse.
Term
polysubstance use
Definition
Use of multiple mind- and behavior-altering substances, such as drugs.
Term
psychoactive substance
Definition
Substance, such as a drug, that alters mood or behavior.
Term
substance intoxication
Definition
Physiological reaction, such as impaired judgment and motor ability, as well as mood change, resulting from the ingestion of a psychoactive substance.
Term
Substance abuse
Definition
Pattern of psychoactive substance use leading to significant distress or impairment in social and occupational roles and in hazardous situations.
Term
substance dependence
Definition
Maladaptive pattern of substance use characterized by the need for increased amounts to achieve the desired effect, negative physical effects when the substance is withdrawn, unsuccessful efforts to control its use, and substantial effort expended to seek it or recover from its effects. Also known as addiction.
Term
tolerance
Definition
Need for increased amounts of a substance to achieve the desired effect, and a diminished effect with continued use of the same amount.
Term
withdrawal
Definition
Severely negative physiological reaction to removal of a psychoactive substance, which can be alleviated by the same or a similar substance.
Term
withdrawal delirium
Definition
Frightening hallucinations and body tremors that result when a heavy drinker withdraws from alcohol.
Term
depressant
Definition
Psychoactive substance that results in behavioral sedation; such substances include alcohol and the sedative, hypnotic and anxiolytic drugs.
Term
stimulant
Definition
Psychoactive substance that elevates mood, activity, and altertness; such substances include amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine, and nicotine.
Term
opiate
Definition
Addictive psychoactive substance such as heroin, opium, or morphine that causes temporary euphoria and analgesia (pain reduction.)
Term
hallucinogen
Definition
Any7 psychoactive substance, such as LSD or marijuana, that can produce delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, and altered sensory perception.
Term
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Definition
Pattern of problems, including learning difficulties, behavior deficits, and characteristic physical flaws, resulting from heavy drinking by the victim's mother when she was pregnant with the victim.
Term
alcohol use disorder
Definition
Cognitive, biological, behavioral, and social problem associated with alcohol use and abuse.
Term
barbiturate
Definition
Sedative (and addictive) drug such as Amytal, Seconal or Nembutal that is used as a sleep aid.
Term
benzodiazepine
Definition
Antianxiety drug such as Valium, Xanax, Dalman, or Halcion also used to treat insomnia. Effective against anxiety (and, at high potency, panic disorder), benzodiazepines show some side effects, such as some cognitive and motor impairment and may result in substance dependence. Relapse rates are extremely high when such a drug is discontinued.
Term
amphetamine/cocaine/nicotine use disorder
Definition
Psychological, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with the use and abuse of said substance.
Term
marijuana
Definition
Dried part of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa); a hallucinogen that is the most widely used illegal substance.
Term
LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide)
Definition
Most common hallucinogenic drug; a synthetic version of the grain fungus ergot.
Term
agonist substitution
Definition
Replacement of a drug on which a person is dependent with one that has a similar chemical makeup, an agonist. Used as a treatment for substance dependence.
Term
antagonist drug
Definition
Medication that blocks or counteracts the effects of a psychoactive drug.
Term
controlled drinking
Definition
An extremely controversial treatment approach to alcohol dependence, in which sever abusers are taught to drink in moderation.
Term
relapse prevention
Definition
Extending therapeutic progress by teaching the client how to cope with future troubling situations.
Term
Intermittent explosive disorder
Definition
Episodes during which a person acts on aggressive impulses that result in serious assaults or destruction of property.
Term
kleptomania
Definition
Recurrent failure to resist urges to steal things not needed for personal use or their monetary value.
Term
pyromania
Definition
An impulse-control disorder that involves having an irresistible urge to set fires.
Term
pathological gambling
Definition
Persisten and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior.
Term
trichotillomania
Definition
People's urge to pull out their own hair from anywhere on the body, including the scalp, eyebrows and arm.