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Chapter 10 - Gender and Sexuality
final prep
51
Psychology
05/15/2011

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Term
Tracy is very fit and energetic. She goes to aerobic classes four times a week, and she is considered by many to be very feminine, especially by her same-sex partner. Tracy's sense of femininity is her _____, and her attraction to a member of the same sex is her _____.

A)
gender; gender role

B)
gender identity; sexual orientation

C)
sex; gender identity

D)
sexual orientation; gender identity
Definition
B)
gender identity; sexual orientation
Term
Men are more likely to fantasize dominance themes whereas women are more likely to report submission themes (being forced to do something sexual). Which of the following is TRUE?

A)
Women's sexual fantasies indicate that they have a strong desire to actually be forced into sexual submission.

B)
While women may find these fantasies sexually arousing, this does not indicate a desire to actually be forced into sexual submission, raped, or assaulted.

C)
Women's sexual fantasies are much more likely to be filled with themes of violence than men's sexual fantasies.

D)
The typical female sexual submission fantasy involves being forced against her will to do something reprehensible.

Definition
B)
While women may find these fantasies sexually arousing, this does not indicate a desire to actually be forced into sexual submission, raped, or assaulted.
Term
Which of the following statements about gender and emotion is TRUE?

A)
Scientific evidence shows that there are no differences in either the degree of emotion experienced or in the expression of emotions in males and females.

B)
Males are much more emotionally expressive than females in almost every culture studied.

C)
In private situations, women show less emotion than men do, but in public situations, men display much more emotion than women.

D)
In American culture, women tend to be more emotionally expressive than men.
Definition
D)
In American culture, women tend to be more emotionally expressive than men.
Term
When the AIDS virus is active, it selectively attacks _____, which are a key component of the body's immune system.

A)
helper T cells

B)
cytotoxic cells

C)
B cells

D)
red blood cells
Definition
A)
helper T cells
Term
According to the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS) and the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), _____ is nearly universal as the most practiced sexual activity among heterosexual couples.

A)
celibacy

B)
oral sex

C)
anal sex

D)
vaginal intercourse
Definition

D)
vaginal intercourse
Term
Olivia states, “Boys are far superior in mathematical ability than girls.” Olivia's assertion:

A)
has been supported by numerous surveys and statistical studies.

B)
is not true because the average difference between males and females on national math tests is very small.

C)
has been supported by research on male and female brain differences.

D)
is wrong because girls consistently perform much better than boys on national math tests.
Definition
B)
is not true because the average difference between males and females on national math tests is very small.
Term

When the National Health and Social Life Survey data is combined for all adults between the ages of 18 and 59:

A)
men have sex an average of seven times per month.

B)
most women had at least two sexual partners in the previous year.

C)
less than one-third of adults reported that they were physically and emotionally satisfied with their sexual relationships.

D)
males in the 30-to-39 age bracket are most likely to report sexual dysfunctions.
Definition
A)
men have sex an average of seven times per month.
Term
Compared to females, males are more likely to have sexual fantasies that involve:

A)
romantic, loving feelings about their partner.

B)
having something sexual done to them.

C)
explicit sexual positions or anatomical details.

D)
just one sexual partner.
Definition
C)
explicit sexual positions or anatomical details.
Term
As part of an experiment investigating gender-role development, Dr. Furlong dressed a number of male and female one-year-olds in identical clothes. In a test to determine whether the child could be identified as a male or a female, Dr. Moretti found that _____ were able to tell the male and female infants apart but that _____ could not.

A)
adults; other one-year-olds

B)
other one-year-olds; adults

C)
grandparents; parents

D)
grandparents; uncles or aunts
Definition

B)
other one-year-olds; adults
Term
Roland achieves sexual arousal by intentionally inflicting psychological or physical pain on another person. Connie gets sexually aroused in response to being humiliated, beaten, or otherwise made to suffer. Roland is a(n) _____ and Connie is a _____.

A)
exhibitionist; frotteurist

B)
sexual sadist; sexual masochist

C)
pedophile; voyeur

D)
sexual masochist; sexual sadist
Definition
B)
sexual sadist; sexual masochist
Term
As the heated discussion with her husband got progressively more intense, Natalie suggested that they stop talking, take a 30-minute break to think about the issue, and then resume the discussion. Natalie is using a technique that psychologist John Gottman calls:

A)
the “penalty box.”

B)
a time out.

C)
regrouping.

D)
Plan B.
Definition

B)
a time out.
Term

Psychologists are often reluctant to point out gender differences that have been substantiated by scientific research. Your textbook suggests that the reason for this reluctance is that:

A)
people may mistakenly equate a gender difference with a gender deficiency.

B)
psychologists are skeptical of any research that finds gender differences.

C)
psychologists want to protect the public from any findings that might challenge cultural norms about gender differences.

D)
when gender differences are discovered they are invariably due to genetic factors and because these cannot be changed by social and cultural factors, psychologists are reluctant to talk about them.
Definition
A)
people may mistakenly equate a gender difference with a gender deficiency.
Term
In considering the total number of infected people, it is estimated that more than _____ million people age 12 and older in the United States have had a genital herpes infection.

A)
15

B)
45

C)
90

D)
180
Definition
B)
45
Term
Whenever Julie played with toy vehicles or blocks her mother would be very disapproving. Whenever she played with dolls and domestic toys her mother would smile and praise her. As Julie grew up, she played less and less with “boys'” toys and more and more with dolls, dollhouses, and domestic accessories. This description of gender-role development exemplifies:

A)
social learning theory.

B)
evolutionary theory.

C)
gender schema theory.

D)
gender identity theory.
Definition
A)
social learning theory.
Term
.
In the fMRI study of love-struck young adults discussed in the Focus on Neuroscience box, researchers Andreas Bartels and Semir Zeki found:

A)
romantic love activated some of the same brain areas that are involved in positive emotions.

B)
distinct gender differences in the patterns of brain activation.

C)
that when participants viewed a photo of their lover, it activated two key memory areas of the brain, the hippocampus and the amygdala.

D)
equal degrees of brain activation in response to the photo of the person's lover or a good friend.
Definition
A)
romantic love activated some of the same brain areas that are involved in positive emotions
Term
Which of the following statements about the stages of the human sexual response is FALSE?

A)
There is greater variability in the female sexual response than the male sexual response.

B)
Younger men typically experience a longer refractory period than do older men.

C)
For both men and women, the degree of physical arousal may fluctuate up and down during the excitement and plateau stages of sexual arousal.

D)
Whereas many women are capable of experiencing multiple orgasms, most men experience one orgasm.
Definition
B)
Younger men typically experience a longer refractory period than do older men.
Term
Psychologist John Gottman and his colleagues have studied how hundreds of married couples handle conflicts in their relationships. Gottman has found that during a conflict:

A)
the male is more likely to be the first to become flooded by his emotions.

B)
the female is more likely to be the first to become flooded by her emotions.

C)
flooding intensifies the male's desire to express his emotions.

D)
the female typically reacts by immediately stonewalling her partner.
Definition
A)
the male is more likely to be the first to become flooded by his emotions.
Term
Based on the data in the National Health and Social Life Survey, which of the following people is most likely to suffer from a sexual problem?

A)
21-year-old Melissa

B)
38-year-old Derrick

C)
44-year-old Carolyn

D)
22-year-old Todd
Definition
A)
21-year-old Melissa
Term
_____ refers to the direction of a person's emotional and erotic attraction toward members of the opposite sex, same sex, or both sexes.

A)
Gender

B)
Gender role

C)
Gender identity

D)
Sexual orientation
Definition

D)
Sexual orientation
Term
Which of the following statements about sexuality in early and middle adulthood is FALSE?

A)
Young adults today typically have more sexual partners than did previous generations.

B)
The majority of young adults today have their first sexual experience prior to marriage.

C)
During the previous year, the majority of people (over 80 percent) have had two or more sexual partners.

D)
By the age of 30, most Americans are part of a couple, either married or cohabiting with someone.
Definition
C)
During the previous year, the majority of people (over 80 percent) have had two or more sexual partners.
Term
A sexual dysfunction characterized by little or no sexual desire is called:

A)
sexual aversion disorder.

B)
hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

C)
dyspareunia.

D)
hyperactive sexual desire disorder.
Definition

B)
hypoactive sexual desire disorder.
Term

The biological category of male or female as defined by physical differences in genetic composition and in reproductive anatomy and functions is referred to as:

A)
gender.

B)
sex.

C)
sexual orientation.

D)
gender identity.
Definition
B)
sex.
Term
Brendan was raised by lesbian parents. When he reaches adulthood it is very likely that Brendan will:

A)
be just as well adjusted as children raised by heterosexual parents.

B)
become homosexual.

C)
suffer from gender identity disorder.

D)
have major problems forming long-term relationships with other people.
Definition
A)
be just as well adjusted as children raised by heterosexual parents.
Term
Lester avoids having sex with his wife because he experiences genital pain after intercourse. Lester has a condition called:

A)
erectile dysfunction.

B)
male orgasmic disorder.

C)
dyspareunia.

D)
pedophilia.
Definition
C)
dyspareunia.
Term
By itself, race is not a risk factor for HIV infection. However, of all the new HIV infections each year, blacks account for _____ percent, whites for _____ percent, and Hispanics for _____ percent.

A)
45; 35; 17

B)
17; 35; 45

C)
25; 20; 50

D)
50; 20; 25
Definition
A)
45; 35; 17
Term
Roslyn is married, but she and her husband rarely have sex because the thought of any genital contact with her husband fills her with disgust, anxiety, and fear. Roslyn suffers from:

A)
dyspareunia.

B)
vaginismus.

C)
female orgasmic disorder.

D)
sexual aversion disorder.
Definition

D)
sexual aversion disorder.
Term

The term sexual orientation describes:

A)
an individual's level of sexual motivation and attitudes toward sexual behavior.

B)
an individual's biological sex.

C)
the sex that is assigned at birth to people with ambiguous genitals.

D)
whether an individual's sexual and emotional attraction is directed toward members of the same sex, of the opposite sex, or both sexes.
Definition
D)
whether an individual's sexual and emotional attraction is directed toward members of the same sex, of the opposite sex, or both sexes.
Term
Which of the following statements about HIV and AIDS is FALSE?

A)
The HIV virus can exist in an otherwise healthy person's body for 10 years or more without causing any apparent symptoms.

B)
The only way to determine whether a person is infected with HIV is through a blood test.

C)
When HIV infects a human cell, it uses the cell's energy and nutrients to reproduce.

D)
Antibodies to HIV form within two to three days after a person has been infected, at which point they can be detected with a simple blood test.
Definition
D)
Antibodies to HIV form within two to three days after a person has been infected, at which point they can be detected with a simple blood test.
Term
A prospective study:

A)
examines the probability of certain life events occurring, such as the rate of common childhood accidents and illnesses.

B)
involves systematically observing a group of people over time to determine what factors are associated with the development of a particular trait, characteristic, or behavior.

C)
uses statistical analyses of historical and existing population data to project future population trends.

D)
involves detailed interviews of a person's acquaintances, close friends, and first-order relatives to determine what psychological and social factors seemed to play the most significant roles in shaping the course of the person's life.
Definition
B)
involves systematically observing a group of people over time to determine what factors are associated with the development of a particular trait, characteristic, or behavior.
Term
Helga was ashamed and embarrassed after she got married because she started experiencing genital pain during and after intercourse. Because the problem persisted, she saw her doctor and was diagnosed with:

A)
hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

B)
female orgasmic disorder.

C)
sexual aversion disorder.

D)
dyspareunia.

Definition
D)
dyspareunia.
Term
A _____ is sexually attracted to both males and females and a _____ is sexually attracted to individuals of the other sex.

A)
bisexual; heterosexual

B)
homosexual; bisexual

C)
heterosexual; bisexual

D)
bisexual; homosexual
Definition
A)
bisexual; heterosexual
Term
According to research by Masters and Johnson, which of the following represents the normal order of the four stages in the human sexual response cycle?

A)
plateau, excitement, resolution, orgasm

B)
excitement, resolution, plateau, orgasm

C)
resolution, plateau, orgasm, excitement

D)
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Definition
D)
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Term
When he went to Yale University, Richard Raskind was captain of the Yale tennis team. But in 1975 at the age of 41, and after years of counseling and a failed marriage, Raskind came to terms with his lifelong discomfort of being a male. He underwent sex-change surgery and re-emerged as Renée Richards. Using the terminology presented in your text, after the sex-reassignment surgery, Richards would be described as a(n):

A)
transgendered woman.

B)
bisexual.

C)
intersexed individual.

D)
transsexual.
Definition
D)
transsexual.
Term

Dr. Pasqualia's area of research is concerned with the issue of gender differences. If she is typical of most scientific researchers in her field she is most likely to conclude that:

A)
men and women are very similar in many aspects of behavior, including social, personality, and cognitive factors.

B)
men and women are very dissimilar in many aspects of behavior, including social, personality, and cognitive factors.

C)
men and women perceive themselves as being diametrically opposite.

D)
men and women are so different that they seem to be from different planets, speaking different languages and needing different nourishment.
Definition
A)
men and women are very similar in many aspects of behavior, including social, personality, and cognitive factors.
Term
According to psychologists Peter Glick and Susan Fiske, the gender-role stereotype of women in the United States often results in a type of prejudice they call:

A)
benevolent sexism.

B)
hostile sexism.

C)
the glass ceiling.

D)
the revolving door.
Definition

A)
benevolent sexism.
Term
When Henry met Sarah he fell madly in love with her. Henry's emotional and erotic attraction to Sarah illustrates:

A)
sexual identification.

B)
sexual orientation.

C)
gender-role stereotyping.

D)
gender disorientation.
Definition

B)
sexual orientation.
Term
As part of her research on gender differences, Dr. Martin is measuring cognitive differences in a large group of male and female freshman college students. She will be most likely to find that, on the average, the female students will:

A)
score higher than the male students on verbal, reading, and writing skills.

B)
score about 30 percent lower than male students on tests of mathematical ability.

C)
score significantly higher than the male students on most tests of spatial skills.

D)
score about the same as the male students on all tests.
Definition
A)
score higher than the male students on verbal, reading, and writing skills.
Term

The Focus on Neuroscience box described a study in which love-struck young adults underwent an fMRI brain scan while they looked at a photo of their beloved or at a photo of a friend. The results of this study indicated:

A)
that looking at a photo of their lover produced a marked reduction in brain activity, especially in the left hemisphere.

B)
when viewing a photo of their lover, females showed significant right hemisphere brain activation while males showed significant left hemisphere brain activation.

C)
when the participants viewed a photo of their lover, it activated some of the same brain areas that are activated by euphoria-producing drugs, such as opiates and cocaine.

D)
no significant differences, as both photos activated the same visual areas of the brain.
Definition

C)
when the participants viewed a photo of their lover, it activated some of the same brain areas that are activated by euphoria-producing drugs, such as opiates and cocaine.
Term
In looking at gender differences on emotion, psychologist Agneta Fischer and her colleagues analyzed cross-cultural data from 37 countries around the world. The researchers found that across cultures:

A)
women report experiencing and expressing more sadness, fear, and guilt, while men report experiencing and expressing more anger and hostility.

B)
men are more emotionally expressive than women in private, but not public, settings.

C)
men and women reported experiencing exactly the same emotions, but only men freely expressed anger and guilt.

D)
men are significantly more accurate than women in interpreting the emotional meaning of nonverbal cues.
Definition

A)
women report experiencing and expressing more sadness, fear, and guilt, while men report experiencing and expressing more anger and hostility.
Term

In a primate species called the bonobo, sexual interaction:

A)
is primarily biologically determined and only occurs when the female is fertile.

B)
serves important social functions, defining and cementing relationships among members of the group.

C)
occurs solely for the purpose of reproduction.

D)
only takes place between the dominant male and his “harem” of females.
Definition

B)
serves important social functions, defining and cementing relationships among members of the group.
Term
Psychologists Mary Beth Oliver and Janet Hyde conducted a meta-analysis that combined the results of more than 170 previous studies that investigated whether men and women differ in their sexual attitudes, preferences, and behaviors. The research revealed that on the average:

A)
men reported greater acceptance of causal sex and more sexual partners than women.

B)
women experienced their first sexual intercourse at an earlier age than men.

C)
men reported significantly greater sexual satisfaction than women.

D)
men and women did not differ in the incidence of masturbation or oral sex.
Definition
A)
men reported greater acceptance of causal sex and more sexual partners than women.
Term
A prospective study conducted by Richard Green followed the development of sexual orientation in two groups of boys. What did the study find?

A)
The boys who displayed feminine behaviors were much more likely to be homosexual or bisexual by the time they reached their late teens.

B)
Boys who were the only male child in the household were almost five times as likely to be homosexual by the time they reached early adulthood.

C)
Regardless of whether the boy had brothers or was the only male child in the household, the rate of homosexuality by early adulthood was the same.

D)
Compared to the boys who grew up in an urban area, boys who grew in sparely-populated rural areas were approximately three times as likely to become homosexual.
Definition
A)
The boys who displayed feminine behaviors were much more likely to be homosexual or bisexual by the time they reached their late teens.
Term

Alex is sexually attracted to both males and females. Alex would be classified as a:

A)
paraphiliac.

B)
bisexual.

C)
transvestite.

D)
heterosexual.
Definition
B)
bisexual.
Term
Newlywed Ann loves her husband very much but is worried because she experiences little or no sexual desire. Ann's problems are consistent with a condition known as:

A)
hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

B)
vaginismus.

C)
hyperactive sexual desire disorder.

D)
frotteurism.
Definition
A)
hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Term
Many researchers have noted gender differences in how children interact with other children. Which of the following statements reflects our current understanding of these differences?

A)
Girls, more often than boys, learn to assert themselves within a group of same-sex friends.

B)
Boys, more often than girls, tend to establish and maintain close friendships through compromise, conciliation, and verbal conflict resolution.

C)
Boys, more often than girls, establish very close bonds with one or two friends, and avoid competition and rough play.

D)
Girls, more often than boys, tend to establish and maintain close friendships through compromise, conciliation, and verbal conflict resolution.
Definition
D)
Girls, more often than boys, tend to establish and maintain close friendships through compromise, conciliation, and verbal conflict resolution.
Term
When he went to Yale University, Richard Raskind was captain of the Yale tennis team. But in 1975 at the age of 41, and after years of counseling and a failed marriage, Raskind came to terms with his lifelong discomfort of being a male. He underwent sex-change surgery and re-emerged as Renée Richards. Using the terminology presented in your text, prior to the sex-reassignment surgery, Raskind would have been described as a(n):

A)
transgendered man.

B)
bisexual.

C)
intersexed individual.

D)
transgendered woman.
Definition
A)
transgendered man.
Term

Death results from being infected with HIV when the virus eventually:

A)
attacks key brain areas regulating respiration and heart beat.

B)
depletes all of a person's physical energy reserves.

C)
weakens the immune system to the point that it can no longer defend the body against infection.

D)
invades and erodes cardiac and lung tissue resulting in respiratory failure or cardiac arrest.
Definition
C)
weakens the immune system to the point that it can no longer defend the body against infection.
Term
Any of several infectious diseases that are primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or other intimate sexual contact are called:

A)
frotteuristic infections.

B)
dyspareunias.

C)
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

D)
paraphilias.
Definition

C)
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Term
Dr. Yueng conducts cross-cultural research on gender and mating strategies. If his research findings are similar to those of David Buss, he will discover that:

A)
women are more likely than men to say that a satisfying sexual relationship is the most important factor in selecting a mate.

B)
women rank physical attractiveness as the most important quality when looking for a mate.

C)
compared to women, men place a higher value on financial security and social status when selecting a mate.

D)
men are more likely than women to value youth and physical attractiveness in a potential mate.
Definition

D)
men are more likely than women to value youth and physical attractiveness in a potential mate.

Term
Because of testicular cancer, 35-year-old Joshua had to have his testicles removed. Research suggests that:

A)
injections of estrogen will increase his level of sexual interest above its previous level.

B)
he will experience homosexual feelings and urges.

C)
he may experience decreased interest in sexual activity.

D)
he will experience no change in his level of sexual interest or activity.


Because of testicular cancer, 35-year-old Joshua had to have his testicles removed. Research suggests that:

A)
injections of estrogen will increase his level of sexual interest above its previous level.

B)
he will experience homosexual feelings and urges.

C)
he may experience decreased interest in sexual activity.

D)
he will experience no change in his level of sexual interest or activity
Definition

C)
he may experience decreased interest in sexual activity.
Term
Because of testicular cancer, 35-year-old Joshua had to have his testicles removed. Research suggests that:

A)
injections of estrogen will increase his level of sexual interest above its previous level.

B)
he will experience homosexual feelings and urges.

C)
he may experience decreased interest in sexual activity.

D)
he will experience no change in his level of sexual interest or activity.


Because of testicular cancer, 35-year-old Joshua had to have his testicles removed. Research suggests that:

A)
injections of estrogen will increase his level of sexual interest above its previous level.

B)
he will experience homosexual feelings and urges.

C)
he may experience decreased interest in sexual activity.

D)
he will experience no change in his level of sexual interest or activity
Definition

C)
he may experience decreased interest in sexual activity.