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Chapter 1 Roach
General Principals
121
Pharmacology
01/24/2011

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Term
additive drug reaction
Definition
Combined effect of two drugs is equal to sum of each drug given alone (1 + 1 = 2)
Term
adverse reaction
Definition
undesireable drug effect
Term
agonist
Definition
drugs that bind with a receptor to produce a therapeutic response
Term
allergic reaction
Definition
immediate hypersensitive reaction by the immune system, it presents as itching, hives, swelling, difficulty breathing; see hypersensitivity; see also anaphy-lactic shock
Term
anaphylactic shock
Definition
( also called anaphylactic reaction or anaphylactoid reaction): sudden, severe hypersensitivity reaction with symptoms that progress rapidly and may result in death if not treated
Term
angioedema
Definition
localized wheals or swellings in subcutaneous tissues or mucous membranes, which may be due to an allergic response; also called angioneurotic edema
Term
antagonist
Definition
drugs that join with a receptor to prevent the action of an agonist
Term
antibodies
Definition
molecule with the ability to bind to a specific anti-gen; responsible for the immune response
Term
antigen
Definition
substance that is capable of inducing a specific immune response
Term
biotransformation
Definition
process by which the body changes a drug to a more or less active form that can be excreted
Term
controlled substances
Definition
drugs that have the potential for abuse and dependency, both physical and psychological
Term
cumulative drug effect
Definition
when the body is unable to metabo-lize and excrete one dose of a drug before the next is given
Term
drug idiosyncrasy
Definition
any unusual or abnormal response that differs from the response normally expected to a specific drug and dosage
Term
drug tolerance
Definition
decreased response to a drug, requiring an increase in dosage to achieve the desired effect
Term
first-pass effect
Definition
action by which an oral drug is absorbed and carried directly to the liver, where it is inactivated by enzymes before it enters the general bloodstream
Term
half-life
Definition
time required for the body to eliminate 50% of a drug
Term
herbal medicine
Definition
type of complementary/ alternative therapy that uses plants or herbs to treat various disorders; also called herbalism
Term
hypersensativity
Definition
undesirable reaction produced by a normal immune system
Term
metabolite
Definition
inactive form of the original drug
Term
nonprescription drugs
Definition
drugs that are designated by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA) to be safe ( if taken as directed) and obtainable without a prescription, also called over- the- counter ( OTC) drugs; may be pur-chased in various settings, such as a pharmacy, drugstore, or supermarket
Term
pharmacuetic
Definition
pertaining to the phase during which a drug dissolves in the body
Term
pharmacodynamic
Definition
study of the drug mechanisms that pro-duce biochemical or physiologic changes in the body
Term
pharmacogenetics
Definition
study of how people’s responses are variable to medications due to individual genetic variation.
Term
pharmacokinetics
Definition
study of body mechanisms ( or activity) after a drug is administered; these mechanisms include absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
Term
pharmacology
Definition
study of drugs and their actinos on living organisms
Term
physical dependency
Definition
habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation
Term
polypharmacy
Definition
taking a large number of different drugs ( may be prescribed or over- the- counter drugs)
Term
prescription drugs
Definition
drugs the federal government has desig-nated as potentially harmful unless their use is supervised by a licensed health care provider, such as a nurse practi-tioner, physician, or dentist
Term
physcological dependency
Definition
compulsion or craving to use a substance to obtain a pleasurable experience
Term
receptor
Definition
a reactive site on the surface of a cell; when a drug binds to and interacts with the recep-tor, a pharmacologic response occurs
Term
synergism
Definition
action that occurs when two substances ( drugs) interact to produce an effect that is greater than the sum of their separate actions
Term
teratogen
Definition
drug or substance that causes abnormal develop-ment of the fetus, leading to deformities
Term
toxic
Definition
poisonous or harmful
Term
DEA
Definition
Drug Enforcement Agency
Term
What is the purpose of the DEA
Definition
to monitor prescription practes of the primary care provider for controlled substances
Term
FDA
Definition
Federal Drug Administration
Term
What is the purpose of the FDA
Definition
responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation, and by regulating the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products.

The FDA is also responsible for advancing the public health by helping to speed innovations that make medicines and foods more effective, safer, and more affordable; and helping the public get the accurate, science-based information they need to use medicines and foods, and to reduce tobacco use to improve health
Term
Describe the 5 catagories for controlled substances
Definition
Schedule I, II, III, IV, V
Term
Defne Schedule I
Definition
High potential for abuse. Severe physical or psychological dependence. No accepted medicinal use in the US
Term
Define Schedule II
Definition
High potential for abused, severe physical or psychological dependence. Accepted medicinal use with specific restrictions
Term
Give examples of schedule II drugs
Definition
Opium, codeine, morphine, amphetamines, Ritalin.
Term
Give examples of Schedule I drugs
Definition
heroine, marajuana
Term
Define Schedule III drugs
Definition
Moderate potential for abuse, severe physical or psychological dependence
Term
Give an example of Schedule III drugs
Definition
Paregoric, Codeine combinations, Seconal
Term
Define Schedule IV drugs
Definition
Lower potential for abuse than Schedule III. Limited psychological and physical dependence
Term
Give examples of Scedule IV drugs
Definition
Darvon, Valium, Ativan, Halcion
Term
Define Schedule V drugs
Definition
Lower potential for abuse. Abuse may lead to limited physical or psychological dependence.
Term
Give example of Schedule V drugs
Definition
Preparations containing limited quantities of narcotics like cough syrups, anti-diarrheal medications like Lomotil, Parepectolin
Term
Identify responsibility related to controlled substances
Definition
Storage, documentation, ordering, prescriptions, disposal/waste, loss or theft.
Term
What are the 5 catagories of drug use during pregnacy
Definition
Catgory A, B,C, D, X
Term
Define Catagory A
Definition
no risk to fetus
Term
Define Catagory B
Definition
no evidence of risk in humans, animal studies show risk
Term
Define Catagory C
Definition
risk cannot be ruled out
Term
Catagory D
Definition
positive evidence of risk to human fetus, used in serious disease only
Term
Catagory X
Definition
use contraindicated in pregnancy
Term
Drugs administered during the first trimester: May cause _______ effects
Definition
teratogenic
Term
Addictive drug use will mean children born with __________
Definition
an addiction
Term
For pregnant women, most drugs are __________ unless benefits outweigh risks
Definition
contraindicated
Term
Identify the different names assigned to drugs
Definition
Chemical; generic; official; trade or brand name
Term
Identifies the exact chemical compound of a medication and its molecular structure: 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)proprionic acid
A) Chemical
B) Trade/brand
C) generic
Definition
A-chemical
Term
The name given when a manufacturer first proposes it to the FDA for approval: ibuprofen, acetaminophen
A) Chemical
B) Trade/brand
C) generic
Definition
C-generic
Term
A drug name owned by a specific manufacturer: Motrin, Tylenol
A) Chemical
B) Trade/brand
C) generic
Definition
B-Trade/Brand
Term
Give an example of a chemical drug name
Definition
2-(4-isobutylphenyl)proprionic acid
Term
Give an example of a trade name
Definition
Motrin, Tylenol
Term
Give an example of a generic name
Definition
ibuprofen, acetaminophen
Term
What are the secondary complications of drug therapy
Definition
side effects, adverse reactions, toxicity
Term
What side effects of drugs
Definition
predictable, less toxic outcomes
Term
What is an adverse reaction of a drug
Definition
an unpredicatble, undesireable effect
Term
What can a toxicity effect
Definition
possible death or destruction
Term
What factors can influence drug response
Definition
Allergic drug reactions
Drug idiosyncrasy
Drug tolerance
Cumulative drug effect
Toxic reactions
Pharmacogenetic reactions
Term
Allergic drug reaction is also known as
Definition
hypersensativity reaction
Term
Usually begins after more than one dose of the drug is given; body views drug as antigen
A) Drug idiosyncrasy
B) Cumulative drug effect
C) Allergic drug reaction
D) Toxic Reaction
Definition
c- allergic drug reaction
Term
What are signs & symptoms of a drug reaction
Definition
Itching; skin rashes; hives; wheezing; cyanosis; sudden loss of consciousness; swelling of eyes, lips, or tongue
Term
What is cyanosis
Definition
A bluish color of the skin and the mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood
Term
What can occur if an allergic reaction occurs too quickly or is not controlled
Definition
Anaphylaxis
Term
What is anaphylactic shock
Definition
hypotension and shock; angioedema
Term
Define hypotension
Definition
low blood pressure
Term
define angioedema
Definition
is a swelling, similar to hives, but the swelling is
beneath the skin rather than on the surface. The hives are called
welts. It is also possible to have angioedema without hives
Term
Define drug idiosyncrasy
Definition
Unusual, abnormal reaction to drug; different from expected reaction
Term
What is thought to be the cause of drug idiosyncrasy
Definition
Believed to be due to genetic deficiency
Term
Define Drug Tolerance
Definition
Decreased response to a drug: Requires increased dosage for desired effect
Term
What could cause Drug Tolerance
Definition
a drug taken for a long time
Term
Define Cumulative Drug Effect
Definition
Body is unable to metabolize and excrete one dose of drug before next dose is given
Term
Cumulative drug effects occurs in wht kind of patients
Definition
Patients with liver and kidney disease
Term
What action is taken with cumulative drug effects
Definition
Dose lowered to prevent toxic drug reaction
Term
Define toxic reaction
Definition
Drug is administered in large dosages; blood concentration levels exceed therapeutic levels
Term
What action do you take to Reverse drug toxicity
Definition
Administer another drug as antidote; monitor drugs with low safety margin
Term
Define drug interactions
Definition
One drug interacts and interferes with the action of another drug
Term
What are the effects of drug interactions
Definition
Additive; synergistic; antagonistic
Term
What are the various forms and routes for drug administration. Put in order of most rapid results
Definition
IV, IM, SQ, ORal
Term
What factors are considered for drug interactions
Definition
age, weight, gender, disease, route
Term
A drug-t-drug interaction occurs...
Definition
occurs when one drug interacts with or interferes with the action of another drug.
Term
Drugs known to cause interactions in a drug-to drug interaction are
Definition
oral antico-agulants, oral hypoglycemics, anti- infectives, antiarrhythmics, cardiac glycosides, and alcohol.
Term
Drug– drug interactions can produce effects that are ...
Definition
additive, synergistic, or antagonistic.
Term
Drug-Food interaction
Definition
Food may impair or enhance absorption.
Term
A drug taken on an empty stomach is __________ in the blood stream more quickly. It achieves optimal effect.
Definition
absorbed
Term
Give an example of a drug that must be taken on an empty stomach.
Definition
Captopril
Term
What is captopril used for? When should it be administered?
Definition
to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. It should be administered 1h before meals or 2h after meals.
Term
What are the effects of a drug that can irritate when taken on an empty stomach
Definition
nausea or vomiting, or cause epigastric distress
Term
Give exam-ples of drugs that are given with food to decrease epigastric distress.
Definition
non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs and salicylates
Term
Certain drugs should not be combined with food. What does this form? What is the outcome of this formation?
Definition
an insoluble food– drug mixture. An unabsorbable drug and not pharmacologically effective
Term
Give an example of adrug-food mixture
Definition
when tetracycline is administered with dairy products.
Term
drug errors
Definition
any event or activity that can cause a patient to receive the wrong dose, the wrong drug, a drug by the wrong route, or a drug given at the wrong time
Term
inhalation
Definition
drug administration route in which the patient inhales the drug orally or nasally
Term
intradermal
Definition
pertaining to the dermis area within the upper layers of the skin
Term
intramuscular
Definition
area within a muscle
Term
intravenous
Definition
area within a vein
Term
parenteral
Definition
drugs given by injection
Term
Standard Precautions
Definition
recommendation that gloves and/ or other protective gear be worn when touching any blood or body fluids, mucous membranes, or any broken skin area; also see Universal Precautions
Term
subcutaneous
Definition
under the skin or dermis layer in the fatty tissue layer.
Term
transdermal
Definition
through the skin
Term
Unit dose
Definition
system of drug delivery by which a drug order is filled and medication dispensed to fill each medication order( s) for a 24- hour period; each drug dose ( unit) is dis-pensed in a package labeled with the drug name and dosage
Term
Z-track technique
Definition
method of intramuscular drug injection preventing leakage onto subcutaneous or skin tissues, used when a drug is highly irritating to subcutaneous tissues or has the ability permanently to stain the skin
Term
What is the process to plan for a patient with a potential drug interaction.
Definition
Consult appropriate references and hospital pharmacist, Observe patients, report, use judgement, accurately observe and evaluate circumstance, record
Term
What is drug abuse and how does it effect health professionals
Definition
Personal impact
Professional impact
Ethical considerations
Legal considerations
Term
What are the common signs of drug abuse
Definition
Changes in weight, sleep habits, vitals, appearance, friends
Impaired memory, Illogical thinking, mood swings, defensiveness, anxiety, overreaction
Runny nose, nasal stuffiness, blood shot eyes, sweating
Excessive absences school or work
Term
Identify the 6 rights of medication administration
Definition
Right Drug
Right Dose
Right Time
Right Route
Right Patient
Right Documentation
Term
Right patient
Definition
Identofy by bracelet and ask the patient to state their name
Term
Right drug
Definition
compares medication, container label, and medication record as the item is removed from the cart, compared to the Medication Administration Record ( MAR) and before the actual administration of the drug
Term
Discuss the 3 systems of measurement used in measuring drugs
Definition
Metric, Household, Apothecary
Term
Memorize different systems of measurement
Definition