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Chap 9 Blood, Lymph, & Immune Systems
Western Medical Terminology
154
Medical
11/02/2009

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Term
anaphylaxis
Definition
Exaggerated, life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered antigen
Term
antibody
Definition
Protective protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to the presence of a foreign substance called an antigen, which the immune system regards as harmful to the host
Term
antigen
Definition
Substance that is recognized as harmful to the host and stimulates the formation of antibodies in an immunocompetent individual
Term
cellular immunity
Definition
Acquired specific resistance, mediated by T cells, that produces reactive subsances or directly exerts a cytotoxic effect on a cell that is identified as harmful
Term
host
Definition
Organism in or on which another, usually parasitic, organisim is nourish and harbored
Term
humoral immunity
Definition
Acquired specific resistance,mediated by B cells, that produces antibodies that bind to and dispose of antigens
Term
immunocompetent
Definition
Able to develop an immune response; able to recognize antigens and respond to them
Term
immunopathology
Definition
Study of disease states associated with over-reactivity or under-reactivity of the immune response
Term
opportunistic infection
Definition
Infection occurring in a person with a weakened immune system and caused by microorganism that under normal conditions, would not bring about disease
Term
palliative treatment
Definition
Treatment that provides relief, but not a cure
Term
serum
Definition
Liquid portion of blood that remains after the removal of fibrinogen
Term
Granulocytes
Definition
Neutrophils; Eosinophils; Basophils
Term
Agranulocytes
Definition
Monocytes; Lymphocytes
Term
neutrophils
Definition
most numerous circulating leukocyte - protective action: phagocytosis; first cell to appear @ the site of injury or infection
Term
basophils
Definition
Begins the allergic reation - releases Histamines & Heparin
Term
eosinophils
Definition
End allergic reactions & parasites by releasing substances that neutralize toxic compounds
Term
adren/o
Definition
gland
Term
agglutin/o
Definition
clumping; gluing
Term
bas/o
Definition
base (alkaline)
Term
blast/o
Definition
embryonic cell
Term
chrom/o
Definition
color
Term
eosin/o
Definition
dawn (rose-colored)
Term
erythr/o
Definition
red
Term
granul/o
Definition
granule
Term
hem/o
Definition
blood
Term
hemat/o
Definition
blood
Term
immun/o
Definition
immune, immunity, safe
Term
kary/o
Definition
nucleus
Term
nucle/o
Definition
nucleus
Term
leuk/o
Definition
white
Term
lymphaden/o
Definition
lymph gland (node)
Term
lymph/o
Definition
lymph
Term
lymphangi/o
Definition
lymph vessel
Term
morph/o
Definition
form, shape, structure
Term
myel/o
Definition
bone marrow, spinal cord
Term
neutr/o
Definition
neutral, neither
Term
phag/o
Definition
swallowing, eating
Term
plas/o
Definition
formation, growth
Term
poikil/o
Definition
varied, irregular
Term
reticul/o
Definition
net, mesh
Term
sider/o
Definition
iron
Term
ser/o
Definition
serum
Term
splen/o
Definition
spleen
Term
thromb/o
Definition
blood clot
Term
thym/o
Definition
thymus gland
Term
xen/o
Definition
foreign, strange
Term
-blast
Definition
embryonic cell
Term
-emia
Definition
blood condition
Term
-globin
Definition
protien
Term
-graft
Definition
transplantation
Term
-osis
Definition
abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
Term
-penia
Definition
decrease, deficiency
Term
-phil
Definition
attraction for
Term
-phoresis
Definition
carrying, transmission
Term
-phylaxis
Definition
protection
Term
-poiesis
Definition
formation, production
Term
-stasis
Definition
standing still
Term
a-
Definition
without, not
Term
allo-
Definition
other; differing from the normal
Term
aniso-
Definition
unequal; dissimilar
Term
iso-
Definition
same, equal
Term
macro-
Definition
large
Term
micro-
Definition
small
Term
mono-
Definition
one
Term
poly-
Definition
many; much
Term
Aplastic (hypoplastic)
Definition
- Associated with bone marrow failure
- Diminished numbers of white blood cells and platelets due to bone marrow suppression
- Serious form of anemia that may be fatal
Term
Folic-Acid deficiency anemia
Definition
Normal levels achieved by increasing folic acid in the diet or eliminating contributing causes
Term
Hemolytic
Definition
- Associated with premature destruction of red blood cells
- Usually accompanied by jaundice
Term
Hemorrhagic
Definition
- Associated with loss of blood volume
- Normal levels achieved with correction of underlying disorder
Term
Iron-deficiency anemia
Definition
Most common type of anemia worldwide
Term
Pernicious anemia
Definition
- Chronic, progressive disorder found mostly in people older than age 50
- Treated with B12 injections
Term
Sickle cell anemia
Definition
- Most common genetic disorder in people of African descent
- Characterized by red blood cells that change from their normal shape to crescents and other irregular shapes that cannot enter capillaries when oxygen levels are low, resulting in severe pain and internal bleeding
- Manifests only in patients with both genes for the trait, not those with only one gene for the trait, who are merely carriers of the disease
Term
anisocytosis
Definition
Condition of marked variation in the size of erythrocytes, when observed on a blood smear
Term
ascites
Definition
Accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal or pleural cavity
Term
bacteremia
Definition
Prescence of viable bacteria circulating in the bloodstream, and considered as "travelers" rather than a blood infection
Term
graft rejection
Definition
Recipient's immune system attacks a transplanted organ or tissue resulting in its destruction
Term
graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR)
Definition
Condition that occurs following bone marrow transplants where the immune cells in the transplanted marrow produce antibodies against the host's tissues
Term
hematoma
Definition
Localized accumulation of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue due to a break in or severing a blood vessel
Term
hemoglobinopathy
Definition
Any disorder caused by abnormalites in the hemoglobin molecule
Term
hemolysis
Definition
Destruction of RBCs with a release of hemoglobin that diffuses into the surrounding fluid
Term
hemostasis
Definition
Arrest of bleeding or circulation
Term
immunity active
Definition
Immunity developed as a consequence of exposure to an antigen and the subsequent development of antibodies
Term
immunity passive
Definition
Immunity in which antibodies or other immune substances formed in one individual are transferred to another individual to provide immediate, temporary immunity
Term
lymphadenopathy
Definition
Any disease of the lymph nodes
Term
lymphosarcoma
Definition
Malignant neoplastic disorder of lymphatic tissue (not related to Hodgkin disease)
Term
septicemia
Definition
Systemic disease associated with the presence and persistence of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins in the blood; also called "blood infection"
Term
serology
Definition
Blood test to detect the presence of antibodies, antigens or immune substances
Term
titer
Definition
Blood test that measures the amount of antibodies in blood;commonly used as an indicator of immune status
Term
activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)
Definition
Test that screens for deficiencies of some clotting factors, valuable for preoperative screening for bleeding tendencies
Term
blood culture
Definition
Test to determine the presence of pathogens in the bloodstream
Term
complete blood count (CBC)
Definition
Series of tests that includes hemoglobin; hematocrit; red blood cell (RBC); white blood cell (WBC); platelet counts; differential WBC count; RBC indices; and RBC & WBC morphology
Term
differentiatal count
Definition
Test tht enumerates the distribution of WBCs in a stained blood smear counting the different kinds of WBCs and reporting each as a percentage of the total examined
Term
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; sed rate)
Definition
Measurement of the distance RBCs settle in 1 hour when whole blood is placed in a narrow tube
Term
hemoglobin (Hgb, Hb)
Definition
Measurement of the amount of hemoglobin found in a whole blood sample
Term
hematocrit (Het)
Definition
measurement of the percentage of packed RBCs in a whole blood sameple; also called "crit"
Term
Monospot
Definition
Serological test performed on a blood sample to detect the presence of a nonspecific antibody called the Heterophile antibody that is present in the serum of patients with infectious mononucleosis
Term
prothrombin time (PT)
Definition
Test used to evaluate portions of the coagulation system and indirectly measure prothrobin; also called "pro time"
Term
RBC indices
Definition
Mathamatical calculation of the size, volume, and concentration of hemoglobin for a average red blood cell
Term
Schilling test
Definition
Test used to assess the absorption of radioactive vitamin B12 by the GI system
Term
lymphadenography
Definition
Radiographic examination of lymph nodes after injection of a contrast medium
Term
lymphangiography
Definition
Radiographic examination of lymph nodes or tissues after injection of contrast medium in lymph vessels
Term
aspiration
Definition
Draw in or out using suction
Term
aspiration bone marrow
Definition
Procedure using a syringe with a thin aspirating needle that is inserted (usually in the sterum or pelvic bone) to withdraw a small sample of bone marrow fluid for microscopic evaluation
Term
biopsy
Definition
Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagosis
Term
biopsy bone marrow
Definition
Removal of a small core sample of tissue from bone marrow for examination under a microscope and, possibly, for analysis using other tests
Term
biopsy sentinel node
Definition
Removal of the first lymph node (also called the sentinel node) that receives drainage from cancer-containing areas and the one most likely to contain malignant cells
Term
transfusion
Definition
Injecting of blood or blood components into the bloodstream
Term
transfusion autologous
Definition
Transfusion prepared from the recipient's own blood
Term
transfusion homologous
Definition
Transfusion prepared from another individual whose blood is compatible with that of the recipient
Term
transplantation
Definition
Grafting of living tissue from its normal position to another site or from one person to another
Term
transplantation autologous bone marrow
Definition
Harvesting, freezing (cryoperserving),and reinfusing the patient's own bone marrow; used to treat bone marrow hypoplasia following cancer therapy
Term
transplantation homologous bone marrow
Definition
Transplantation of bone marrow from one individual to another; used for treating aplatic anemia and immunodeficiency disorders
Term
anticoagulants
Definition
Prevent blood clot formation by inhibiting one or more clotting factors

Generic/Trade Names:
enoxaparin/Lovenox
heparin/Hep-Lock, Hep-Lock U/P
warfarin/Coumadin
Term
antineoplastics
Definition
Kill or damage rapidly metabolizing cells

Generic/Trade names:
doxorubicin hydrochloride/ Adriamycin PFS, Adriamycin RDF, Rubex
Term
antiprotozoals, antibiotics, & sulfa drugs (to treat PCP)
Definition
Treat Pneumocystis carnii pneumonia (PCP)

Generic/Trade Names:
trimetrexate glucuronate/Neutrexin
trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole/Bactrim, Septra
pentamidine/NebuPent, Pentam-300
Term
antivirals (to treat HIV-AIDS)
Definition
Prevent the replication of viruses withing host cells

Generic/Trade Names:
nelfinavir/Viracept
lamivudine & zidovudine/Combivir
zidovudine/AZT; Retrovir
Term
fat-soluble vitamins
Definition
Prevents and treat disorders resulting from a lack of prothrombin, which is commonly caused by a vitamin K deficiency

Generic/Trade name:
phytonadione/Vitamin K, Mephyton
Term
hemostatics
Definition
Prvent or control bleeding

Generic/Trade Names:
aminocaproic acid/Amicar
Term
thrombolytics
Definition
Dissolved blood clots by destroying the fibrin strands that make up the clot

Generic/Trade Names:
alteplase/Activase, t-PA
streptokinase/Streptase
urokinase/Abbokinase, Abbokinase Open-Cath
Term
AB, ab
Definition
abortion; antibodies
Term
ABO
Definition
blood groups A, AB, B & O
Term
AIDS
Definition
aquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Term
ALL
Definition
acute lymphocytic leukemia
Term
AML
Definition
acute myelogenous leukemia
Term
APTT
Definition
activated partial thromboplastin time
Term
baso
Definition
basophil (type of white blood cell)
Term
CBC
Definition
complete blood count
Term
CLL
Definition
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Term
CML
Definition
chronic myelogenous leukemia
Term
diff
Definition
differential count (white blood cells)
Term
EBV
Definition
Epstein-Barr virus
Term
eos
Definition
eosinophil (type of white blood cell)
Term
ESR, sed rate
Definition
erythrocyte sedimentation rate; sedimentation rate
Term
Hb, Hgb
Definition
hemoglobin
Term
HCT, Hct
Definition
hematocrit
Term
HDN
Definition
hemolytic disease of the newborn
Term
HIV
Definition
human immunodeficiency virus
Term
Igs
Definition
immunoglobulins
Term
ITP
Definition
idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura
Term
I.V.; IV
Definition
intravenous
Term
lymphos
Definition
lymphocytes
Term
MCH
Definition
mean corpuscular hemoglobin; mean cell hemoglobin (average amount of hemoglobin per cell)
Term
MCHC
Definition
mean cell hemoglobin concentration (average concentration of hemoglobin in a single red cell)
Term
MCV
Definition
mean cell volume (average volume or size of a single red blood cell; high MCV = macrocytic cells; low MCV = microsytic cells)
Term
mL, ml
Definition
milliters
Term
PA
Definition
posteroanterior; pernicious anemia
Term
PCV
Definition
packed cell volume
Term
poly, PMN, PMNL
Definition
polymorphonuclear leukocyte
Term
PT
Definition
prothrombin time, physical therapy
Term
PTT
Definition
partial thromboplastin time
Term
RBC, rbe
Definition
red blood cell, red blood count
Term
segs
Definition
segmented neutrophils
Term
SLE
Definition
systemic lupus erythematosus
Term
WBC, wbc
Definition
white blood cell, white blood count