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Ch6 Network Hardware, Switching, and Routing
N/A
101
Computer Networking
06/01/2013

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Term
NICs contain a(n) _____, which transmits and receives data signals.
A. data transceiver
B. keyboard port
C. antenna
D. mouse port
Definition
A. data transceiver
Term
By far, the most popular expansion board NIC today is one that uses a(n) _____ bus.
A. ISA
B. PCIe
C. onboard
D. ExpressCard
Definition
B. PCIe
Term
Which of the following can be called a static VLAN?
A. VLAN based on MAC addresses
B. VLAN based on dynamic IP addresses
C. VLAN based on ports
D. VLAN based on static IP addresses
Definition
C. VLAN based on ports
Term
At its most primitive, a _____ is a repeater with more than one output port.
A. hub
B. switch
C. base
D. bridge
Definition
A. hub
Term
Which of the following types of routing protocols allows routers to exchange information about best paths with their neighboring routers only?
A. Hybrid
B. Distance-vector
C. All of the above
D. Link-state
Definition
B. Distance-vector
Term
How do bridges keep track of whether they should forward or filter frames?
A. They maintain a filtering database that identifies which frames can be filtered and which should be forwarded, based on their destination MAC address.
B. They compare the incoming frame's network address to known addresses on both segments and filter those that don't belong to either.
C. They hold each frame until it is requested by the destination node, at which time the bridge forwards the data to the correct segment based on its MAC address.
D. From each frame they receive, they extract source addresses; those frames whose source addresses don't belong to the bridge's broadcast domain are filtered.
Definition
A. They maintain a filtering database that identifies which frames can be filtered and which should be forwarded, based on their destination MAC address.
Term
In addition to viewing its LEDs and using a loopback plug to test a NIC's functionality, you can also check a NIC's connectivity with _____.
A. special switches
B. simple commands
C. special software
D. special clients
Definition
B. simple commands
Term
Which of the following distinguishes switches from repeating devices, such as hubs?
A. Switches separate broadcast domains.
B. Switches do not examine Network layer protocol information, which makes them faster than repeating devices.
C. Switches separate collision domains.
D. Switches can alert the network administrator to high data collision rates.
Definition
C. Switches separate collision domains.
Term
In routing, the route with the lowest metric is the:
A. inactive route
B. preferred route
C. active route
D. least preferred route
Definition
B. preferred route
Term
Which of the following identifies the VLAN to which each piece of data belongs?
A. An envelope that encapsulates each packet
B. A FCS added to each packet's header
C. A tag added to each frame's header
D. A shim added to each packet's header
Definition
C. A tag added to each frame's header
Term
_____ are combinations of networking hardware and software that connect two dissimilar kinds of networks.
A. Broadcast domains
B. Routers
C. Gateways
D. Switches
Definition
C. Gateways
Term
Which of the following terms describes a situation where all the routers have finished updating their routing tables?
A. trunking
B. convergence
C. bonding
D. infrastructure mode
Definition
B. convergence
Term
Why is a large, busy network more likely to use dynamic routing?
A. Because dynamic routing allows for stricter IP filtering and, therefore, offers greater data security than static routing.
B. Because dynamic routing is the default option on most routers, and it is difficult to configure routers to use static routing.
C. Because dynamic routing automatically selects the most efficient route between nodes, reducing the possibility for human error.
D. Because dynamic routing is the only routing method compatible with the BGP routing protocol, which is necessary for routing between WANs.
Definition
C. Because dynamic routing automatically selects the most efficient route between nodes, reducing the possibility for human error.
Term
PCIe slots vary depending on the number of _____ they support.
A. labels
B. lanes
C. processors
D. cards
Definition
B. lanes
Term
Which of the following is a significant advantage to using an SFP interface on a router rather than an on-board NIC?
A. The SFP will be capable of higher throughputs.
B. The SFP promises greater security, as it can encrypt and decrypt data.
The SFP can accept multiple types of connectors, allowing the router to connect two disparate network types.
D. The SFP can be added or removed without affecting operations, thus allowing for customization and future upgrades.
Definition
D. The SFP can be added or removed without affecting operations, thus allowing for customization and future upgrades.
Term
Switches that operate anywhere between Layer 4 and Layer 7 are also known as _____ switches.
A. peripheral
B. content
C. multiport
D. STP
Definition
B. content
Term
A _____ is a Layer 3 multiport connectivity device that directs data between nodes on a network.
A. bridge
B. hub
C. router
D. gateway
Definition
C. router
Term
Repeaters operate in the _____ layer of the OSI model.
A. Network
B. Transport
C. Physical
D. Session
Definition
C. Physical
Term
Switches can create ______ by grouping a number of ports into a broadcast domain.
A. VLANs
B. gateways
C. spanning trees
D. trunks
Definition
A. VLANs
Term
You are asked to configure a backbone switch that connects servers supplying oceanic and atmospheric data to mariners and pilots around the world. Your network's traffic load is very high at all times, day and night. What type of switching do you configure the switch to use?
A. Store-and-forward switching
B. Bypass switching
C. Message switching
D. Cut-through switching
Definition
A. Store-and-forward switching
Term
What is a router's convergence time?
A. The time a router takes to interpret Layer 2 addressing information for any given frame
B. The time it takes for border routers to exchange routing table information
C. The time it takes for a router to recognize a best path in the the event of a change or network outage
D. The maximum amount of time a router is allowed for choosing the best path
Definition
C. The time it takes for a router to recognize a best path in the the event of a change or network outage
Term
A hardware component that can be changed without disrupting operations is known as ______.
A. fast-synching
B. fast-swappable
C. hot-synching
D. hot-swappable
Definition
D. hot-swappable
Term
At which layers of the OSI model are gateways capable of functioning?
A. Layers 2 and 3
B. Layers 1 and 2
C. Layers 1, 2, and 3
D. At all layers
Definition
D. At all layers
Term
Suppose your company's network contains two separate VLANs. Computer A is on the Customer Service VLAN and Computer B is on the Warehouse VLAN. Besides a Layer 2 switch, what device is required for Computer A and Computer B to exchange data?
A. Repeater
B. Multiplexer
C. Bridge
D. Router
Definition
D. Router
Term
In general, a steady or blinking green LED, sometimes labeled _____, indicates that the NIC is functional and has a connection to the network.
A. LNK
B. RX
C. TX
D. ACT
Definition
A. LNK
Term
_____ routing is a technique in which a network administrator programs a router to use specific paths between nodes.
A. Dynamic
B. Best path
C. Link-state
D. Static
Definition
D. Static
Term
Each time a computer starts up, the device drivers for all its connected peripherals are loaded into ______.
A. RAM
B. ROM
C. EEPROM
D. CMOS
Definition
A. RAM
Term
Which of the following standards applies to VLANs?
A. 802.5
B. 802.1X
C. 802.1Q
D. 802.11i
Definition
C. 802.1Q
Term
Which of the following terms describes the number of routers traversed by a packet between its source and destination?
A. TTL
B. hop count
C. vector
D. route
Definition
B. hop count
Term
Which of the following can be called a dynamic VLAN?
A. VLAN based on ports
B. VLAN based on dynamic IP addresses
C. VLAN based on static IP addresses
D. VLAN based on MAC addresses
Definition
D. VLAN based on MAC addresses
Term
Which of the following utilities could you use to force the NIC on your Linus server to use full-duplex transmission?
A. ipconfig
B. ifconfig
C. iftool
D. ethtool
Definition
D. ethtool
Term
You and a friend decide to set up Fast Ethernet networks in your respective houses to connect a half-dozen computers at each location. Both of you will connect your networks to high-speed Internet connections. As the connectivity device for end nodes, you purchase a router, whereas your friend uses an old, but functional, 12-port hub he found at a garage sale. Which of the following will your network do that your friend's network won't do?
A. Filter traffic based on IP address
B. Transmit data from any one of the connected computers to any other
C. Create a VLAN out of some of the computers to isolate their transmissions and prevent them from affecting other connections
D. Allow other connectivity devices to be added to the network in the future
Definition
A. Filter traffic based on IP address
Term
You are a network technician working on a 100Base-T network. A coworker has been having trouble logging on to the server and asks whether you can quickly tell her if her workstations's NIC is operating properly. You do not have the NIC's utility disk on hand, but you look at the back of her workstation and learn that although the NIC is properly installed and connected to the network, something's wrong with it. What might you have seen that causes you to come to this conclusion?
A. Its activity LED is blinking green
B. Its loopback plug is improperly terminated
C. It has two types of receptacles - SC and RJ-45 - and the wrong one is in use
D. None of the LEDs are lit
Definition
D. None of the LEDs are lit
Term
In cut-through switching, which frame field does the switch never read?
A. Start frame delimiter
B. Source address
C. Frame check sequence
D. Protocol type
Definition
C. Frame check sequence
Term
What potential problem does STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) address?
A. An excess of erroneously short packets
B. A broadcast storm
C. Network congestion due to a router failure
D. Slow convergence time
Definition
B. A broadcast storm
Term
In STP, what device acts as a guide to setting the best paths between switches?
A. Root bridge
B. Workgroup bridge
C. Parent bridge
D. Link bridge
Definition
A. Root bridge
Term
What switching technique allows you to funnel traffic belonging to more than one VLAN through a single switch interface?
A. Jamming
B. Route capturing
C. Trunking
D. Multiplexing
Definition
C. Trunking
Term
Which of the following routing protocols is used on the Internet's backbone?
A. EIGRP
B. OSPF
C. BGP
D. RIP
Definition
C. BGP
Term
A packet on a network using the RIP routing method has been passed from one connectivity device to another 15 times. What happens when it gets passed to one more device?
A. It is returned to the node that originally transmitted it.
B. It is encapsulated by the routing protocol and retransmitted.
C. It is forwarded to its destination by the last device.
D. It is discarded.
Definition
D. It is discarded.
Term
Which of the following factors is not considered when OSPF determines the best path for a packet?
A. Link failure
B. Number of hops
C. Throughput
D. Latency
Definition
B. Number of hops
Term
802.1D
Definition
The IEEE standard that describes, among other things, bridging and STP (Spanning Tree Protocol).
Term
802.1q
Definition
The IEEE standard that specifies how VLAN and trunking information appear in frames and how switches and bridges interpret that information.
Term
802.1w
Definition
the IEEE standard that describes RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol), which evolved from STP (Spanning Tree Protocol).
Term
access port
Definition
The interface on a switch used for an end node. Devices connected to access ports are unaware of VLAN information.
Term
application switch
Definition
A switch that provides functions between Layer 4 and Layer 7 of the OSI model.
Term
backplane
Definition
A synonym for motherboard, often used in the context of switches and routers.
Term
best path
Definition
The most efficient route from one node on a network to another. Under optimal network conditions, the best path is the most direct path between two points. However, when traffic congestion, segment failures, and other factors create obstacles, the most direct path might not be the best path.
Term
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)
Definition
A distance-vector routing protocol capable of considering many factors in its routing metrics. BGP, an Exterior Gateway Protocol, is the routing protocol used on Internet backbones.
Term
BID (Bridge ID)
Definition
A combination of a 2-byte priority field and a bridge's MAC address, used in STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) to select a root bridge.
Term
border router
Definition
A router that connects an autonomous LAN with an exterior network - for example, the router that connects a business to its ISP.
Term
bridge
Definition
A connectivity device that operates at the Data Link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model and reads header information to forward packets according to their MAC addresses. Bridges use a filtering database to determine which packets to discard and which to forward. Bridges contain one input and one output port and separate network segments.
Term
bus
Definition
The type of circuit used by a computer's motherboard to transmit data to components. Most new Pentium computers use buses capable of exchanging 32 or 64 bits of data. As the number of bits of data a bus handles increases, so too does the speed of the device attached to the bus.
Term
content switch
Definition
A switch that provides functions between Layer 4 and Layer 7 of the OSI model.
Term
convergence time
Definition
The time it takes for a router to recognize a best path in the event of a change or network outage.
Term
cost
Definition
In the context of routing metrics, the value assigned to a particular route as judged by the network administrator. The more desirable the path, the lower its cost.
Term
cut-through mode
Definition
A switching mode in which a switch reads a frame's header and decides where to forward the data before it receives the entire packet. Cut-through mode is faster, but less accurate, than the other switching method, store-and-forward mode.
Term
device driver
Definition
The software that enables an attached device to communicate with the computer's operating system.
Term
distance-vector
Definition
The simplest type of routing protocols, these determine the best route for data based on the distance to a destination. Some distance-vector routing protocols, like RIP, only factor in the number of hops to the destination, while others take into account latency and other network traffic characteristics.
Term
dynamic routing
Definition
A method of routing that automatically calculates the best path between two nodes and accumulates this information in a routing table. If congestion or failures affect the network, a router using dynamic routing can detect the problems and reroute data through a different path. Modern networks primarily use dynamic routing.
Term
EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)
Definition
A routing protocol that can span multiple, autonomous networks. BGP and EIGRP are examples of Exterior Gateway Protocols.
Term
EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
Definition
A routing protocol developed in the mid-1980s by Cisco Systems that has a fast convergence time and a low network overhead, but is easier to configure and less CPU-intensive than OSPF. EIGRP also offers the benefits of supporting multiple protocols and limiting unnecessary network traffic between routers.
Term
ethtool
Definition
A popular tool for viewing and modifying network interface properties on Linux computers.
Term
expansion board
Definition
A circuit board used to connect a device to a computer's motherboard.
Term
expansion slot
Definition
A receptacle on a computer's motherboard that contains multiple electrical contacts into which an expansion board can be inserted.
Term
exterior router
Definition
A router that directs data between nodes outside a given autonomous LAN, for example, routers used on the Internet's backbone.
Term
filtering database
Definition
A collection of data created and used by a bridge that correlates the MAC addresses of connected workstations with their locations. A filtering database is also known as a forwarding table.
Term
firewall
Definition
A device (either a router or a computer running special software) that selectively filters or blocks traffic between networks. Firewalls are commonly used to improve data security.
Term
gateway
Definition
A combination of networking hardware and software that connects two dissimilar kinds of networks. Gateways perform connectivity, session management, and data translation, so they must operate at multiple layers of the OSI model.
Term
GBIC (Gigabit interface converter)
Definition
A standard type of modular interface designed in the 1990s for Gigabit Ethernet connections. DBICs may contain RJ-45 or fiber-optic cable ports (such as LC, SC, or ST). They are inserted into a socket on a connectivity device's backplane.
Term
hot-swappable
Definition
The feature of a component that allows it to be installed or removed without disrupting operations.
Term
hub
Definition
A connectivity device that retransmits incoming data signals to its multiple ports. Typically, hubs contain one uplink port, which is used to connect to a network's backbone.
Term
IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)
Definition
A routing protocol, such as RIP, that can only route data within an autonomous (internal) network.
Term
interior router
Definition
A router that directs data between nodes on an autonomous LAN.
Term
IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System)
Definition
A link-state routing protocol that uses a best-path algorithm similar to OSPF's. IS-IS was originally codified by ISO, which referred to routers as "intermediate systems," thus the protocol's name. Unlike OSPF, IS-IS is designed for use on interior routers only.
Term
Layer 3 switch
Definition
A switch capable of interpreting data at layer 3 (Network Layer) of the OSI model.
Term
Layer 4 switch
Definition
A switch capable of interpreting data at Layer 4 (Transport Layer) of the OSI model.
Term
link-state
Definition
A type of routing protocol that enables routers across a network to share information, after which each router can independently map the network and determine the best path between itself and a packet's destination node.
Term
loopback plug
Definition
A connector used for troubleshooting that plugs into a port (for example, a serial, parallel, or RJ-45 port) and crosses over the transmit line to the receive line, allowing outgoing signals to be redirected back into the computer for testing.
Term
on-board NIC
Definition
A NIC that is integrated into a computer's motherboard, rather than connected via an expansion slot or peripheral bus.
Term
on-board port
Definition
A port that is integrated into a computer's motherboard.
Term
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
Definition
A routing protocol that makes up for some of the limitations of RIP and can coexist with RIP on a network.
Term
PCIe (PCI Component Interconnect Express)
Definition
A 32-bit bus standard capable of transferring data at up to 1 Gbps per data path, or lane, in full-duplex transmission. PCIe is commonly used for expansion board NICs.
Term
RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
Definition
The oldest routing protocol that is still widely used, RIP is a distance-vector protocol that uses hop count as its routing metric and allows up to only 15 hops. It is considered an IGP. Compared with other, more modern, routing protocols, RIP is slower and less secure.
Term
RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol version 2)
Definition
An updated version of the original RIP routing protocol, which makes up for some of its predecessor's overhead and security flaws. However, RIPv2 packet forwarding is still limited to a maximum of 15 hops.
Term
root bridge
Definition
The single bridge on a network selected by the Spanning Tree Protocol to provide the basis for all subsequent path calculations.
Term
router
Definition
A multiport device that operates at Layer 3 of the OSI model and uses logical addressing information to direct data between networks or segments. Routers can connect dissimilar LANs and WANs running at different transmission speeds and using a variety of Network layer protocols. They determine the best path between nodes based on traffic congestion, available versus unavailable routes, load balancing targets, and other factors.
Term
routing metric
Definition
The method used by routing protocols to determine the best path for data to follow over a network. Routing metrics may be calculated using any of several variables, including number of hops, bandwidth, delay, MTU, cost, and load.
Term
routing protocols
Definition
The means by which routers communicate with each other about network status. Routing protocols determine the best path for data to take between nodes.
Term
routing table
Definition
A database stored in a router's memory that maintains information about the location of hosts and best paths for forwarding packets to them.
Term
RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol)
Definition
As described in IEEE's 802.1w standard, a version of the Spanning Tree Protocol that can detect and correct for network changes much more quickly.
Term
runt
Definition
An erroneously shortened packet.
Term
SFP (small form-factor pluggable) transceiver
Definition
A standard hot-swappable network interface used to link a connectivity device's backplane with fiber-optic or copper cabling. SFPs are known as mini GBICs because they perform a similar function as GBICs, but have a smaller profile. Current SFP standards enable them to send and receive data at up to 10 Gbps.
Term
static routing
Definition
A technique in which a network administrator programs a router to use specific paths between nodes. Because it does not account for occasional network congestion, failed connections, or device moves and requires manual configuration, static routing is not optimal.
Term
store-and-forward mode
Definition
A method of switching in which a switch reads the entire data frame into its memory and checks it for accuracy before transmitting it. Although this method is more time consuming than the cut-through method, it allows store-and-forward switches to transmit data more accurately.
Term
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)
Definition
A switching protocol defined in IEEE 802.1D. STP operates in the Data Link layer to prevent traffic loops by calculating paths that avoid potential loops and by artificially blocking links that would complete a loop. Given changes to a network's links or devices, STP recalculates its paths.
Term
switch
Definition
A connectivity device that logically subdivides a network into smaller, individual collision domains. A switch operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model and can interpret MAC address information to determine whether to filter (discard) or forward packets it receives.
Term
trunk port
Definition
The interface on a switch capable of managing traffic from multiple VLANs.
Term
trunking
Definition
The aggregation of multiple logical connections in one physical connection between connectivity devices. In the case of VLANs, a trunk allows two switches to manage and exchange data between multiple VLANs.
Term
uplink port
Definition
A port on a connectivity device, such as a hub or switch, used to connect it to another connectivity device.
Term
VLAN (virtual local area network)
Definition
A network within a network that is logically defined by grouping its devices' switch ports in the same broadcast domain. A VLAN can consist of any type of network node in any geographic location and can incorporate nodes connected to different switches.
Term
VTP (VLAN trunking protocol)
Definition
Cisco's protocol for exchanging VLAN information over trunks. VTP allows one switch on a network to centrally manage all VLANs.