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Ch14 Ensuring Integrity and Availability
N/A
105
Computer Networking
06/20/2013

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Term
Which of the following allows two interfaces on a switch to share the burden of receiving and transmitting traffic over a single logical connection?
A. link aggregation
B. round-robin DNS
C. mirroring
D. clustering
Definition
A. link aggregation
Term
Which factor must you consider when using cloud backups that you don't typically have to consider when backing up to an external storage device?
A. future accessibility of data
B. time to recover
C. number of clients attached to the network
D. security
Definition
D. security
Term
_____ is a fault-tolerance technique that links multiple servers together to act as a single server.
A. grouping
B. mirroring
C. duplicating
D. clustering
Definition
D. clustering
Term
Mesh topologies and _____ topologies are good choices for highly available enterprise networks.
A. SONET ring
B. ring
C. bus
D. star
Definition
A. SONET ring
Term
Which of the following offers the highest fault tolerance for shared data and programs?
A. SANs
B. NAS devices
C. RAID
D. bonding
Definition
A. SANs
Term
In a Grandfather-Father-Son backup scheme, the October - week 1 - Thursday backup tape would contain what type of files?
A. files changed since the previous Thursday
B. files changed since the previous Wednesday
C. files changed since Wednesday (a day before)
D. files changed since a month ago Thursday
Definition
C. files changed since Wednesday (a day before)
Term
_____ are programs that run independently and travel between computers and across networks.
A. worms
B. viruses
C. bots
D. Trojan horses
Definition
A. worms
Term
A(n) _____ is a deviation from a specified level of system performance for a given period of time.
A. error
B. fault
C. hoax
D. failure
Definition
D. failure
Term
Why do SANs save and retrieve files faster than NAS devices?
A. they use a proprietary network transmission method, rather than Ethernet
B. they save files with similar characteristics in the same place on a drive
C. they rely on customized Network and Transport layer protocols
D. they save only the parts of files that were changed, rather than the file's entire contents
Definition
A. they use a proprietary network transmission method, rather than Ethernet
Term
What makes SONET a highly fault-tolerant technology?
A. it uses single-mode, rather than multimode, fiber-optic cable
B. it connects customers with multiple network service providers
C. it requires high-speed backup lines for every connectivity device
D. it uses dual fiber-optic rings to connect nodes
Definition
D. it uses dual fiber-optic rings to connect nodes
Term
If your anti-malware software uses signature scanning, what must you do to keep its malware-fighting capabilities current?
A. reinstall the malware-scanning software each month
B. manually edit the date in the signature scanning file
C. purchase new malware signature scanning software every three months
D. regularly update the anti-malware software's signature database
Definition
D. regularly update the anti-malware software's signature database
Term
_____ scanning techniques attempt to identify malware by discovering "malware-like" behavior.
A. integrity checking
B. polymorphic
C. heuristic
D. signature
Definition
C. heuristic
Term
Which of the following power flaws has the ability to render your server's main circuit board unusable, even after power returns to normal?
A. surge
B. brownout
C. sag
D. blackout
Definition
A. surge
Term
Which of the following can be considered an advantage of clustering servers over mirroring servers?
A. clustering has no geographical distance limitations
B. clustering keeps a more complete copy of a disk's data
C. clustering does not affect network performance
D. clustering failover takes place more rapidly
Definition
D. clustering failover takes place more rapidly
Term
An archive _____ is a file attribute that can be checked or to indicate whether the file must be archived.
A. bit
B. byte
C. field
D. word
Definition
A. bit
Term
_____ detects malware by comparing current characteristics of files and disks against an archived version of these characteristics to discover any changes.
A. integrity checking
B. signature
C. heuristic
D. polymorphic
Definition
A. integrity checking
Term
_____ Web sites are locations on the Internet that dynamically duplicate other locations on the Internet, to ensure their continual availability.
A. clustered
B. shared
C. grouped
D. mirrored
Definition
D. mirrored
Term
Power that is free from noise is called "_____" power.
A. white
B. filtered
C. clear
D. clean
Definition
D. clean
Term
_____ is a type of media capable of storing digitized data and that uses a laser to write data to it and read data from it.
A. tape backup media
B. fiber optic media
C. optical media
D. USB
Definition
C. optical media
Term
Which of the following protocols does Network Attached Storage (NAS) use? (Select 2)
A. frame relay
B. ATM
C. TCP/IP
D. IPX
Definition
C. TCP/IP
D. IPX
Term
A(n) _____ UPS uses the A/C power from the wall outlet to continuously charge its battery, while providing power to a network device through its battery.
A. standby
B. offsite
C. online
D. offline
Definition
C. online
Term
What characteristics of the IRC protocol makes it an effective way to spread viruses and worms quickly?
A. it does not require users to log on, thus allowing open entry to the server via users' connections
B. it relies on multiple servers to provide their IRC service, thus enabling many hosts to become infected at once
C. it maintains a registry of all potential users and issues keep-alive transmissions to those users periodically
D. it broadcasts communication form one chat room participant to others
Definition
D. it broadcasts communication form one chat room participant to others
Term
Suppose you want to use redundant firewalls on your WAN link. Which of the following protocols would allow you to make both firewalls respond to requests for the same IP address?
A. SMTP
B. DHCP
C. CARP
D. NTP
Definition
C. CARP
Term
Which of the following commands allows you to determine how long your Linux server has been running continuously?
A. ifconfig up
B. ifconfig avail
C. uptime
D. show runtime
Definition
C. uptime
Term
When purchasing a UPS, you have to match the power needs of your system according to what unit of measure?
A. watts
B. hertz
C. Mbps or Gbps
D. volt-amps
Definition
A. watts
Term
What is the difference between an incremental backup and a differential backup?
A. an incremental backup saves all the files on a disk, whereas a differential backup saves only the files that have changed since the previous backup
B. an incremental backup requires the network administrator to choose which files should be backed up, whereas a differential backup automatically save files that have changed since the previous backup
C. an incremental backup resets the archive bit after backing up files, whereas a differential backup does not
D. an incremental backup saves all files that haven't been backup up since a defined date, whereas a differential backup saves all files whose archive bit is set
Definition
C. an incremental backup resets the archive bit after backing up files, whereas a differential backup does not
Term
A group of hard disks is called a _____.
A. disk array
B. disk partition
C. disk volume
D. RAID group
Definition
A. disk array
Term
You have outsourced your VoIP services to a cloud computing provider that promises 99.99% uptime. However, one day your IP telephone service is unavailable for a 1/2 hour. If this turns out to the the service's average downtime per month, what is its actual uptime?
A. 99.96%
B. 99.93%
C. 99.90%
D. 98.99%
Definition
B. 99.93%
Term
Suppose you are the network manager for an ISP whose network contains five file servers that use software RAID, a NAS installation, and a SAN. You learn that the company is taking on a huge Web hosting client and you need to add 10 TB of storage space as soon as possible. To what part of the network should you add the storage so that is causes the least disruption to the existing network?
A. to the NAS
B. to all of the servers' RAID arrays
C. to one of the server's RAID arrays
D. to the SAN
Definition
D. to the SAN
Term
_____ is intended to eliminate single points of failure.
A. redundancy
B. contingency
C. availability
D. integrity
Definition
A. redundancy
Term
Which of the following percentages represents the highest availability?
A. 99.99%
B. 0.001%
C. 99%
D. 0.10%
Definition
A. 99.99%
Term
Approximately how long will an online UPS take to switch its attached devices to battery power?
A. 1 minute
B. 30 seconds
C. 5 seconds
D. no time
Definition
D. no time
Term
In the Grandfather-Father-Son backup scheme, how frequently is a full backup performed? (Choose all that apply)
A. Daily
B. Twice a week
C. Weekly
D. Every two weeks
E. Monthly
Definition
C. Weekly
E. Monthly
Term
You have been charged with creating a disaster recovery contingency plan for the federal benefits agency where you work. Your supervisor has said that the network must have the highest availability possible, no matter what the cost. Which type of disaster recovery site do you recommend?
A. Cold site
B. Cool site
C. Warm site
D. Hot site
Definition
D. Hot site
Term
archive bit
Definition
A file attribute that can be checked (or set to "on") or unchecked (or set to "off") to indicate whether the file needs to be archived. An operating system checks a file's archive bit when it is created or changed.
Term
array
Definition
A group of hard disks.
Term
availability
Definition
How consistently and reliably a file, device, or connection can be accessed by authorized personnel.
Term
backup
Definition
A copy of data or program files created for archiving or safekeeping.
Term
backup rotation scheme
Definition
A plan for when and how often backups occur, and which backups are full, incremental, or differential.
Term
blackout
Definition
A complete power loss.
Term
Blu-ray
Definition
An optical storage format released in 2006 by a consortium of electronics and computer vendors. Blu-ray discs are the same size as recordable DVDs, but can store significantly more data, up to 128 GB on a quadruple-layer disc.
Term
boot sector virus
Definition
A virus that resides on the boot sector of an external storage device and is transferred to the partition sector or the DOS boot sector on a hard disk when the machine starts.
Term
bot
Definition
A program that runs automatically. Bots can spread viruses or other malicious code between users in a chat room by exploiting the IRC protocol.
Term
brownout
Definition
A momentary decrease in voltage, also known as a sag. An overtaxed electrical system may cause brownouts, recognizable as a dimming of the lights.
Term
CARP (Common Address Redundancy Protocol)
Definition
A protocol that allows a pool of computers or interfaces to share one or more IP addresses. CARP improves availability and can contribute to load balancing among several devices, including servers, firewalls, or routers.
Term
clustering
Definition
A fault-tolerance technique that links multiple servers to act as a single server. In this configuration, clustered servers share processing duties and appear as a single server to users. If one server in the cluster fails, the other servers in the cluster automatically take over its data transaction and storage responsibilities.
Term
cold site
Definition
A place where the computers, devices, and connectivity necessary to rebuild a network exist, but they are not appropriately configured, updated, or connected to match the network's current state.
Term
cold spare
Definition
A duplicate component that is not installed, but can be installed in case of a failure.
Term
differential backup
Definition
A backup method in which only data that has changed since the last full or incremental backup is copied to a storage medium, and in which that same information is marked for subsequent backup, regardless of whether it has changed. In other words, a differential backup does not uncheck the archive bits for files it backs up.
Term
disaster recovery
Definition
The process of restoring critical functionality and data to a network after an enterprise-wide outage that affects more than a single system or a limited group of users.
Term
encrypted virus
Definition
A virus that is encrypted to prevent detection.
Term
external disk drive
Definition
A storage device that can be attached temporarily to a computer.
Term
failover
Definition
The capability for one component (such as a NIC or server) to assume another component's responsibilities without manual intervention.
Term
failure
Definition
A deviation from a specified level of system performance for a given period of time. A failure occurs when something doesn't work as promised or as planned.
Term
fault
Definition
The malfunction of one component of a system. A fault can result in a failure.
Term
fault tolerance
Definition
The capacity for a system to continue performing despite an unexpected hardware or software malfunction.
Term
Fibre Channel
Definition
A distinct network transmission method that relies on fiber-optic media and its own proprietary protocol. Fiber Channel is capable of over 5 Gbps throughput.
Term
file-infector virus
Definition
A virus that attaches itself to executable files. When the infected executable file runs, the virus copies itself to memory. Later, the virus attaches itself to other executable files.
Term
full backup
Definition
A backup in which all data on all servers is copied to a storage medium, regardless of whether the data is new or changed. A full backup unchecks the archive bit on files it has backed up.
Term
Grandfather-Father-Son
Definition
A backup rotation scheme that uses daily (son), weekly (Father), and monthly (Grandfather) backup sets.
Term
hardware RAID
Definition
A method of implementing RAID that relies on an externally attached set of disks and a RAID disk controller, which manages the RAID array.
Term
heuristic scanning
Definition
A type of virus scanning that attempts to identify viruses by discovering viruslike behavior.
Term
hot site
Definition
A place where the computers, devices, and connectivity necessary to rebuild a network exist, and all are appropriately configured, updated, and connected to match your network's current state.
Term
hot spare
Definition
In the context of RAID, a disk or partition that is part of the array, but used only in case one of the RAID disks fails. More generally, hot spare is used as a synonym for a hot swappable component.
Term
incremental backup
Definition
A backup in which only data that has changed since the last full or incremental backup is copied to a storage medium. After backing up files, an incremental backup unchecks the archive bit for every file it has saved.
Term
integrity
Definition
The soundness of a network's files, systems, and connections. To ensure integrity, you must protect your network from anything that might render it unusable, such as corruption, tampering, natural disasters, and viruses.
Term
integrity checking
Definition
A method of comparing the current characteristics of files and disks against an archived version of these characteristics to discover any changes. The most common example of integrity checking involves a checksum.
Term
IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
Definition
A protocol that enables users running special IRC client software to communicate instantly with other participants in a chat room on the Internet.
Term
link aggregation
Definition
A fault-tolerance technique in which multiple ports or interfaces are bonded and work in tandem to create one logical interface. Link aggregation can also improve performance and allow for load balancing.
Term
load balancer
Definition
A device that distributes traffic intelligently between multiple computers.
Term
load balancing
Definition
The distribution of traffic over multiple links, hard disks, or processors intended to optimize responses.
Term
logic bomb
Definition
A program designed to start when certain conditions are met.
Term
macro virus
Definition
A virus that takes the form of an application (for example, a word-processing or spreadsheet) program macro, which may execute when the program is in use.
Term
malware
Definition
A program or piece of code designed to harm a system or its resources.
Term
master name server
Definition
An authoritative name server that is queried first on a network when resolution of a name that is not already cached is requested. Master name servers can also be called primary name servers.
Term
mirroring
Definition
A fault-tolerance technique in which one component or device duplicates the activity of another.
Term
NAS (network attached storage)
Definition
A device or set of devices attached to a client/server network, dedicated to providing highly fault-tolerant access to large quantities of data. NAS depends on traditional network transmission methods such as Ethernet.
Term
network virus
Definition
A virus that takes advantage of network protocols, commands, messaging programs, and data links to propagate itself. Although all viruses could theoretically travel across network connections, network viruses are specially designed to attack network vulnerabilities.
Term
NIC teaming
Definition
A type of link aggregation in which two or more NICs work in tandem to handle traffic to and from a single node.
Term
online backup
Definition
A technique in which data is backed up to a central location over the Internet.
Term
online UPS
Definition
A power supply that uses the A/C power from the wall outlet to continuously charge its battery, while providing power to a network device through its battery.
Term
optical media
Definition
A type of media capable of storing digitized data, which uses a laser to write data to it and read data from it.
Term
polymorphic virus
Definition
A type of virus that changes its characteristics (such as the arrangement of its bytes, size, and internal instructions) every time it is transferred to a new system, making it harder to identify.
Term
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent [or Inexpensive] Disks)
Definition
A server redundancy measure that uses shared, multiple physical or logical hard sisks to ensure data integrity and availability. Some RAID designs also increase storage capacity and improve performance.
Term
recordable DVD
Definition
An optical storage medium that can hold up to 4.7 GB on one single-layered side. Both sides of the disc can be used, and each side can have up to two layers. Thus, in total, a double-layered, two-sided DVD can store up to 17 GB of data. Recordable DVDs come in several different formats.
Term
redundancy
Definition
The use of more than one identical component, device, or connection for storing, processing, or transporting data. Redundancy is the most common method of achieving fault tolerance.
Term
replication
Definition
A fault-tolerance technique that involves dynamic copying of data (for example, an NOS directory or an entire server's hard disk) from one location to another.
Term
round-robin DNS
Definition
A method of increasing name resolution availability by pointing a host name to multiple IP addresses in a DNS zone file.
Term
SAN (storage area network)
Definition
A distinct network of multiple storage devices and servers that provides fast, highly available, and highly fault-tolerant access to large quantities of data for a client/server network. A SAN uses a proprietary network transmission method (such as Fibre Channel) rather than a traditional network transmission method such as Ethernet.
Term
server mirroring
Definition
A fault-tolerance technique in which one server duplicates the transactions and data storage of another, identical server. Server mirroring requires a link between the servers and software running on both servers so that the servers can continually synchronize their actions and one can take over in case the other fails.
Term
signature scanning
Definition
The comparison of a file's content with known virus signatures (unique identifying characteristics in the code) in a signature database to determine whether the file is a virus.
Term
slave name server
Definition
A name server that can take the place of a master name server to resolve names and addresses on a network. Slave name servers poll master name servers to ensure that their zone information is identical. Slave name servers are also called secondary name servers.
Term
software RAID
Definition
A method of implementing RAID that uses software to implement and control RAID techniques over virtually any type of hard disk(s). RAID software may be a third-party package or utilities that come with an operating system NOS.
Term
standby UPS
Definition
A power supply that provides continuous voltage to a device by switching virtually instantaneously to the battery when it detects a loss of power from the wall outlet. Upon restoration of the power, the standby UPS switches the device to use A/C power again.
Term
stealth virus
Definition
A type of virus that hides itself to prevent detection. Typically, stealth viruses disguise themselves as legitimate programs or replace part of a legitimate program's code with their destructive code.
Term
surge
Definition
A momentary increase in voltage caused by distant lightning strikes or electrical problems.
Term
surge protector
Definition
A device that directs excess voltage away from equipment plugged into it and redirects it to a ground, thereby protecting the equipment from harm.
Term
tape backup
Definition
A relatively simple and economical backup method in which data is copied to magnetic tapes. In many environments, tape backups have been replaced with faster backup methods, such as copying to network or online storage.
Term
Trojan horse
Definition
A program that disguises itself as something useful, but actually harms your system.
Term
UPS (uninterruptible power supply)
Definition
A battery-operated power source directly attached to one or more devices and to a power supply (such as a wall outlet) that prevents undesired features of the power source from harming the device or interrupting its services.
Term
uptime
Definition
The duration or percentage of time a system or network functions normally between failures.
Term
virus
Definition
A program that replicates itself to infect more computers, either through network connections or through external storage devices, such as USB drives, passed among users. Viruses might damage files or systems or simply annoy users by flashing messages or pictures on the screen or by causing the keyboard to beep.
Term
volt-amp (VA)
Definition
A measure of electrical power. A volt-amp is the product of the voltage and current (measured in amps) of the electricity on a line.
Term
warm site
Definition
A place where the computers, devices, and connectivity necessary to rebuild a network exist, though only some are appropriately configured, updated, or connected to match the network's current state.
Term
worm
Definition
An unwanted program that travels between computers and across networks. Although worms do not alter other programs as viruses do, they can carry viruses.