Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Cervical Region
Anatomy 2
60
Veterinary Medicine
01/13/2010

Additional Veterinary Medicine Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
How many cervical vertebrae do mammals have?
Definition
7
Term
What is wobblers?
Definition
Deformation of articular processes of C1-C4
Term
What is a somite?
Definition
  • Building block
  • Destined to become muscle (myotome), vertebral body (sclerotome), or skin (dermatome)
  • Each myotome has its own nerve
Term
Describe the cutaneous colli muscle.
Definition
  • Cutaneous muscle
  • Colli means neck
  • Inserts laterally on skin
  • Very prominent in horses (esp. stallions)
  • Overlies jugular vein
  • Gets thinner close to C2 & C3
Term
Describe the brachiocephalicus muscle.
Definition
  • Long muscle of the neck
  • When only one contracts, it causes 'half a no'
  • Omotransversarius is fused to it in the horse
Term
Describe the sternocephalicus muscle.
Definition
  • Medial to the brachiocephalicus muscle
  • Attaches from sternum to head (angle of mandible)
Term
Describe the omohyoideus muscle.
Definition
  • Runs from shoulder to hyoid bone
Term
Descibe the position of the esophagus in a horse.
Definition
  • Starts out on top of the trachea, goes to the left side as it goes more caudally
  • Use this to tell if you are looking at the cranial (it'll be on the right) or caudal (it'll be on the left) side of a cross-section
Term
What are the muscular boundaries of the jugular furrow (groove)?
Definition
  • Brachiocephalicus m.
  • Sternocephalicus m.
  • Omohyoideus m.
    • Serves as the medial wall in the middle part of the neck (elsewhere its connective tissue)
  • Cutaneus colli m.
    • Outter layer (could also be skin)
Term
What are the contents of the jugular furrow (groove)?
Definition
  • External jugular vein
  • Lymphatics
  • Nervi & vasa vasorum
Term
What is a neurovascular bundle?
Definition
  • Artery, vein, nerve, & lymphatics together
Term
What is a dermatome?
Definition
  • Segment of skin that has originated in the cervical block
  • Has its own innervation
Term
How many cervical spinal nerves are there?
Definition
8 pairs x 2 = 16 cervical spinal nerves
Term
What creates a spinal nerve, and where does it lie?
Definition
  • Junction of the dorsal & ventral roots
  • Very short & lies in vertebral foramen
Term
What does the spinal nerve divide into?
Definition
  • Dorsal & ventral branches
  • Has both sensory & motor fibers
Term
Does a cervical spinal nerve have autonomic (sympathetic) fibers?
Definition
  • No, autonomic fiber system is in the thoracolumbar region.
  • Dorsal and ventral branches off the nerve does
Term
What is the vertebral formula of a cow?
Definition
  • C7 T13 L6 S5 CD (18-20)
Term
What is the vertebral formula of sheep and goats?
Definition
  • C7
  • T13
  • L6-7
  • S (4 sheep) (5 goats)
  • CD16-18
Term
What is the verterbal formula of a horse?
Definition
  • C7
  • T18
  • L6
  • S5
  • Cd20
Term
What is the vertebral formula of a pig?
Definition
  • C7
  • T14-15
  • L6-7
  • S4
  • Cd20
Term
What makes up the vertebral arch?
Definition
  • Lamina (right & left)
  • Pedicle (right & left)
Term
What do two adjacent vertebral notches form?
Definition
  • Intervertebral foramen
Term
What are the two structures of the nuchal ligament?
Definition
  1. Funiculus nuchae
  2. Lamina nuchae
Term
What are the attachments of the funiculus nuchae?
Definition
  • Cranial: nuchal crest
  • Caudal: dorsal thoracic spine of T2-3
  • Continues caudally as supraspinous ligament @ T2-3
Term
What are the associated bursae of the funiculus nuchae?
Definition
  1. Cranial nuchal bursa (atlantal)
  2. Caudal nuchal bursa (axis)
  3. Supraspinous bursa
Term
Where is the supraspinous bursa located?
Definition
  • Between spine of T2-3 and the funicular nuchae
Term
What are the attachments of the lamina nuchae?
Definition
  • Dorsal: deviates ventrally from the ventral surface of the funicular nuchae
  • Ventral: dorsal spines of cervical vertebrae
Term
What is the dorsal scapular ligament, what does it do, and where does it attach?
Definition
  • Modification of the deep fascia (thoracolumbar)
  • Attaches limb to trunk
  • Attachments:
    • Dorsum of spines of thoracic vertebrae & funicular nuchae & supraspinous ligament
    • Serrated face of scapula
Term
Where does the esophagus lie?
Definition
  • Dorsum of trachea
  • Deviates to left in mid-cervical region
Term
Where does the trachea lie?
Definition
  • Ventral to esophagus
Term
What neurovascular bundles are associated with the trachea?
Definition
  • Common carotid aa. & External jugular vv.
  • Tracheal lymphatic ducts
  • Vagosympathetic trunk & recurrent laryngeal nn.
Term
How many pairs of cervical spinal nerves are there?
Definition
  • 8 pairs
Term
Where does the cervical spinal nerves originate and exit?
Definition
  • Originate: vertebral canal
  • Exit:
    • Lateral vertebral foramen C1&2
    • Intervertebral foramen C2-8 (cranial to the same # vertebrae)
Term
What do dorsal branches of cervical spinal nerves supply?
Definition
  1. Epaxial muscles: dispatched as they pass the muscle
  2. Cutaneous branches emerge near dorsal midline to supply dorsal skin
Term
What do ventral branches of the cervical spinal nerves supply?
Definition
  1. Hypaxial muscles: dispatched as they pass the muscle
  2. Cutaneous branches emerge through the ventral neck muscles to supply ventral skin
  3. C6-8 contribute to the formation of brachial plexus
  4. C5-7 contribute to the formation of phrenic nerve
  5. C2 continues as the great auricular nerve
  6. C1-5 rootlets contribute to the formation of accessory nerve (CN XI) within the vertebral canal
Term
What are the sympathetic supplies to cervical spinal nerves and their branches?
Definition
  • Vertebral nerve
  1.  
    • From ventral roots & spinal nerves of T1-2
    • Traverse through the transverse foramen, after synapsing in & leaving the cervicothoracic ganglia, with the vertebral artery & vein
    • Give communicating rami (branches) to C2-7
Term
What is the parasympathetic supply for the cervical spinal nerves and their branches?
Definition
  • Vagus nerve (portion of the vagosympathetic trunk)
Term
What provides the cervical blood supply?
Definition
  • Deep cervical artery
  • Dorsal scapular artery
  • Common carotid artery
  • Superficial cervical artery
  • Vertebral artery
Term
What are the lymphatic structures and centers of the cervical region?
Definition
  1. Superficial cervical (prescapular) lymph nodes
  2. Deep cervical lymph center
    • Deep cervical lymph nodes
Term
Where are the superficial cervical (prescapular) lymph nodes located, and what do they drain?
Definition
  • Cranial to scapulohumeral joint
  • Medial to omotransversairus (brachiocephalicus) muscle
  • Drainage area (afferents): thoracic limb, caudal neck, & lateral thorax
  • Efferents drain to: thoracic &/or tracheal ducts
Term
Where are the deep cervical lymph nodes, and what do they drain?
Definition
  • Lie along trachea of ruminants & equids
    • Horses have cranial, middle, & caudal deep cervical lymph nodes
  • Drainage area (afferents): head & cranial neck
  • Drains to tracheal duct or middle deep cervical lymph nodes
  • Then drains to right lymphatic duct or venous angle side
Term
What embryonic strucures afford the clinician the opportunity to preduct the origin of the innervation for a body region?
Definition
  • Somites
Term
Identify and describe the anatomic peculiarities of the following vertebrae: C1, C2, C7, T2, & S1-5
Definition
  • C1: atlas- large lateral wings
  • C2: axis- elongated spinous process and dens that articulate with C1
  • C7: no transverse foramina
  • T2: supraspinous bursa b/w T2 & T3, funicular portion of nuchal ligament continues caudally as supraspinous ligament after T2
  • S1-S5- fused as one bone
Term
Describe the course of the cervical parasympathetic innervation.
Definition
  • The vagus nerve is the parasympathetic supply to the cervical area.
  • It travels down through the cervical region combined with the sympathetic trunk. 
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerve leaves the vagus in the thorax & loops back up to the larynx to innervate those muscles.
Term
Are the deep cervical lymph nodes normally palpable in the horse?
Definition
  • No
Term
What bone is associated with the nuchal crest?
Definition
  • Occipital bone
Term
What bones are associated with the withers?
Definition
  • Spinous processes of T2-T8
Term
What bones are associated with the point of the shoulder?
Definition
  • Cranial portion of the greater tubercle of the humerus
Term
What bones are associated with the point of the elbow?
Definition
  • Olecranon process/ tuber olecrani
Term
What bones are associated with the thoracolumbar junction?
Definition
  • T18-L1
Term
What specific portion of the thoracic spinal nerve innervates C. trunci (from triceps to thigh) and C. omobrachialis (overtriceps)?
Definition
  • C. omobrachialis is innervated by the lateral thoracic nerve from the brachial plexus
Term
Is the nerve innervating C. trunci and C. omobrachialis GSE or GSA?
Definition
  • GSE, motor to twitch skin
Term
What branch of a specific nerve innervates C. trunci and C. omobrachialis?
Definition
  • Lateral thoracic nerve arises from the brachial plexus and provides by direct branches and indirectly by communication with branches of the intercostobrachial nerve
Term
What is the basic anatomy of a spinal nerve?
Definition
  • Dorsal and ventral roots join --> spinal nerve --> branches into dorsal & ventral branches --> each branch into medial & lateral branches
Term
In the caudal half of the neck, what lies between the jugular vein and the skin?
Definition
  • C. colli
Term
What does the visceral compartment of the neck contain, and what are the relationship of the contents at C5?
Definition
  • Trachea, esophagus, & cartotid sheath (which contains the blood supply for the trachea & esophagus)
  • C5 is the point along the tracheal tract where the esophagus crosses over to the left side of the neck
Term
What is different about the equine superficial cervical lymph nodes and those of the dog?
Definition
  • Dog: SCLN is located under teh omotransversarius m.
  • Equine: SCLN located below the brachiocephalicus m., which is fused with the omotransversarius m. as one muscle
Term
Where is the supraspinous bursa located?
Definition
  • Between spinous processes of T2-T3 & funicular nuchae
Term
How does the nuchal ligament of the horse differ from that of the dog and cat?
Definition
  • Horse: more developed; 2 parts: the funicular & laminar
  • Dog: only funicular portion
  • Cat: not present
Term
What is the orientation of the large animal heart?
Definition
  • Sits b/w intercostal spaces 2-6
  • More than half the heart lies to the left of the median plane
  • Dorsal border: tracheal bifurcation, atria, & greater vessels
  • Ventral border: apex of heart, opposite the last segment of the sternum, & slightly cranial to the sterna attachment of the diaphragm
  • Caudal border: left ventricle
  • Cranial border: right ventricle