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Cells
Cells Chapter 3
19
Anatomy
01/24/2010

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Term
Four Concepts of cell theory
Concept 1
Definition
1)A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. So when you define cell properties you are in fact defining the properties of life.
Term
Four Concepts of cell theory
Concept 2
Definition
2) The activity of an organism depends on both the individual and the collective activities of its cells.
Term
Four Concepts of cell theory
Concept 3
Definition
3)According to the principle of complementarity of structure and function, the biochemical activities of cells are dictated by the relative number of their specific subcellular structures.
Term
Four Concepts of cell theory
Concept 4
Definition
4) Continuity of life from one generation to another has a cellular basis.
Term
Centrosomes
Definition

"Cell Center" near nucleus

 

Function: a region near the nucleus which contains paired organelles called centriole. Act as generating microtuble and organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division.  

Term
Lysosomes
Definition

spherical membranous sace of digestive enzyme packed by Golgi apparatus.  Sites of inrtacellular digestion.

 

Function: they degrade worn-out organelles and tissues that are no longer useful, ingest bacteria, viruses and toxins.

Term
Cytoplasm
Definition

the cellular material between plasma membrane and nucleus.  Site where most cellular activities are accomplished.  Consists of 3 elements:

1) Cystosol (water, salt and sugar)

2) Cytoplasmic Organelles (metabolic machinery of cell) 

3) Inclusions (Chemical substance that may or may not be present depending on cell type)

Term
DNA Replication
Definition
occurs before cell division ensuring that both daughter cells have identical genes.  The DNA helix uncoils and each DNA nucleotide strand acts as a template for the formation of a complementary strand. 
Term
How is the membrane potential maintained in a resting state?
Definition
diffusion causes ionic imbalances that polarize the membrane, and active transport processes maintain that membrane potential.
Term
Cytosol
Definition
Made up of water
Term
Isotonic
Definition
The concentration inside and out of the cell are the same.  No effect on cell
Term
Hypertonic
Definition
The outside solution has a higher concentration of solute than the cell.  Water leaves the cell in an effort to dilute the outside solution.  This causes cells to shrink.
Term
Hypotonic
Definition
The solution outside the cell has lower concentration of solutes than the solution inside the cell.  Water moves from the outside solution into the cell in an attempt to dilute the concentration in the cell.  This causes the cell to sell or burst.
Term
Tight Junctions
Definition
Impermeable junctions prevent molecules from passing through the intercellular space. 
Term
Desmosomes
Definition
anchoring junctions bind adjacent cells together and help form an internal tension-reducing network of fibers
Term
Gap Junctions
Definition
Communicating junctions allow ions and small molecules to pass from one cell to the next for intercellular communication. 
Term
Passive Processes
Definition

substances cross the plasma membrane without any energy input from the cell.  Two main types of passive processes are Diffusion & Filtration.

 

Diffusion: the tendency of molecules or ions to move from an area where they are in higher concentration to an area where they are in lower concentration.

Filtration or Osmosis: a simple diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. 

Term
Which structures help to increase the absorption and to increase surface area for increased absorption?
Definition
Microvilli 
Term
Hyperplasia
Definition
When a person is anemic, his bone marrow undergoes hyperplasia or accelerated growth, so that the red blood cells are produced at a faster rate.  If the anemia is remedied, the excessive marrow activity ceases.