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Canine Anatomy: Muscles of the Pelvic Limb
muscles of the pelvic limb
49
Veterinary Medicine
09/15/2011

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Cards

Term
Tensor fasciae latae
Definition

tense the fascia lata, flex coxal joint and extend genual joint

aponeurotic insertion for thigh muscles

Term
superficial gluteal
Definition

Origin: sacrotuberous ligament

Termination: third trochanter of the femur

Action: abduct the limb

 

Term
middle gluteal
Definition

Origin: gluteal surface of the ilium

Termination: greater trochanter of the femur.

Action: extend the coxal joint; abduct the limb.

Term
piriformis
Definition

Origin: sacrum and first caudal vertebra

Termination: greater trochanter

Action: extend the coxal joint

 

Term
deep gluteal
Definition

Origin: body of ilium and ischiatic spine

Termination: greater trochanter (deep to the middle gluteal m.)

Action: abduct the limb and extend the coxal joint

Term
articularis coxa
Definition

on the hip joint capsule

landmark for joint surgery

Term
muscles that pull femur dorsal and cranial after luxation
Definition
gluteal muscles
Term
external obturator muscle
Definition

 

Termination: trochanteric fossa

Action: adduct and/or rotate the limb laterally at the coxal joint

Term
internal obturator
Definition

 

Termination: trochanteric fossa

Action: rotate the limb laterally at the coxal joint

Term
gemelli muscles
Definition

Termination: trochanteric fossa

Action: rotate the limb laterally at the coxal joint

Term
QUADRATUS femoris
Definition

QUADRATUS means 4 sided (square or rectangular)

Termination: caudal femur near the trochanteric fossa

Action: extend coxal joint; adduct and/or rotate the limb laterally at the coxal joint.

cranial aspect of the limb rotates out

counteracts the gluteals; keeps feet from toeing in

Term
biceps femoris
Definition

Origin: ischiatic tuberosity and sacrotuberous ligament

Termination: patella, tibia, and tuber calcanei

Action: extend the coxal joint; variable action on the genual joint; extend the tarsocrural joint

genual joint: flexes with no weight; extends when weight bearing

Term
semitendinosus
Definition

Origin: ischiatic tuberosity

Termination: tibia and tuber calcanei

Action: extend the coxal joint; variable action on the genual joint; extend the tarsocrural joint

Term
semimembranosus
Definition

Origin: on or near the ischiatic tuberosity

Termination: distal femur and proximal tibia(not as distal as other caudal mm)

Action: extend coxal joint; variable action on the genual joint

Term
sartorius
Definition

has cranial and caudal bellies in the dog only

Origin: crest of ilium

Termination: medial aspect of the genual region

Action: flex the coxal joint, extend (cr. belly) or flex (cd. belly) the genual joint

Term
gracilis
Definition

Origin: pelvic symphysis

Termination: medial aspect of the genual region

Action: adduct the limb, extend the coxal joint; flex the genual joint; extend the tarsocrural joint

Term
pectineus
Definition

Origin: iliopubic eminence (prepubic tendon and cranial border of pubis)

Termination: distal body of femur

Action: adduct the limb

Term
adductor
Definition

Origin: ventral surface of os coxae

Action: adduct the limb and extend the coxal joint

Term
QUADRICEPS femoris
Definition

QUADRICEPS means 4 headed muscle

4 heads: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis

Origin: rectus femoris, ilium; other three heads, proximal femur (patella)

Termination: tibial tuberosity

Action: flex the coxal joint (rectus femoris); extend the genual joint (all heads)

hot dog in a bun:

rectus femoris is the hot dog

v intermedius is the bottom

v med and lat is the sides

Term
iliopsoas
Definition

Origin: ilium (iliacus) and lumbar vertebrae (psoas major).

Termination: lesser trochanter

Action: flex the coxal joint

Term
cranial tibial m
Definition

Origin: lateral aspect of proximal tibia

Termination: plantar base of metatarsal bones 1 and 2

Action: flex the tarsocrural joint and rotate paw laterally

Term
long digital extensor
Definition

sim to common dig extensor in thoracic limb

Origin: extensor fossa of femur

Termination: extensor processes of the distal phalanges

Action: extend the genual joint; flex the tarsocrural joint; extend the digital joints

Term
lateral digital extensor
Definition

Origin: on and near the proximal aspect of the fibula

Termination: lateral digits

Action: flex the tarsocrural joint; extend the digital joints

Term
peroneus longus
Definition

Origin: on or near lateral collateral ligament of the genual joint

Termination: fourth tarsal bone and plantar base of metatarsal bones

Action: flex the tarsocrural joint and rotate the paw medially

Term
gastrocnemius
Definition

medial and lateral heads: each head has a sesamoid bone at the origin

Origin: distal caudal femur

Termination: tuber calcanei of the calcaneus (prox)

Action: flex the genual joint; extend the tarsocrural joint

Term
SDF
Definition

Origin: lateral supracondylar tuberosity of femur

Termination: tuber calcanei and bases of middle phalanges (dist)

Action: flex the genual joint; extend the tarsocrural joint; flex the digital joints

Term
DDF
Definition

Origin: proximal caudal aspect of the tibia and fibula

Termination: flexor tubercle of distal phalanges

Action: extend the tarsocrural joint; flex the digital joints

Term
popliteus
Definition

Origin: popliteal fossa of the femur

Termination: proximal caudal aspect of tibia

Action: flex the genual joint

Term
interosseus muscles
Definition
similar to ones in manus
Term
common calcanean (achilles) tendon
Definition

biceps femoris*

semitendinosus*

gracilis*

SDF

gastrocnemius

 

*combined tendon

 

Term
adduct pelvic limb
Definition

gracilis

pectineus

adductor

(external obturator)

(quadratus femoris)

 

Term
abduct pelvic limb
Definition

superficial gluteal

middle gluteal

deep gluteal

Term
flex coxal joint
Definition

sartorius

rectus femoris

iliopsoas

(tensor faciae latae)

 

Term
extend coxal joint
Definition

middle gluteal

deep gluteal

piriformis

quadratus femoris

biceps femoris

semitendinosus

semimembranosus

gracilis

adductor

 

Term
flex genual joint
Definition

sartorius (cd belly)

gracilis

biceps femoris - when not weight bearing

SDF

popliteus

gastrocnemius

Term
extend genual joint
Definition

sartorius (cr belly)

quadriceps femoris

biceps femoris - when bearing weight

long digital extensor

gastrocnemius

Term
flex tarsal joint
Definition

cranial tibial

long digital extensor

lateral digital extensor

peroneus longus

Term
extend tarsal joint
Definition

biceps femoris

semitendinosus

gracilis

gastrocnemius

 

Term
flex digital joint
Definition

SDF

DDF

Term
extend digital joint
Definition

long digital extensor

lateral digital extensor

superficial digital extensor

 

 

Term

muscles of the pelvic limb which normally possess sesamoid bones

Definition

 

·         Quadriceps femoris (patella)

 

·         Gastrocnemius (fabella)

 

·         Popliteus

 

·         Biceps femoris

 

Term

Describe the normal location and functions of the patella

Definition

 

·         Protects quadriceps femoris from being ruptured on genual joint

 

·         Sits in the trochlea of the femur

 

Term

 

difference between the patellar ligament and the tendon of insertion of the quadriceps femoris m.?

 

Definition

no difference: patellar ligament is another name for the distal end of the tendon of insertion of the quadriceps femoris, goes from patella to tibial tuberosity

Term

 

·         Crural extensor retinaculum

 

Definition

 

·         Cranial

 

·         Just proximal to tarsal joints

 

·         Long digital extensor muscle

 

·         Cranial tibial muscles

 

Term

 

·         Tarsal extensor retinaculum

 

Definition

 

·         Cranial

 

·         At calcaneus

 

·         Long digital extensor

 

Term

 

·         Tarsal flexor retinaculum

 

Definition

 

·         Plantar

 

·         At calcaneus

 

·         Lateral digital flexor

 

Term

Identify the 2 ligaments associated with the coxal joint; describe the attachments and function of each.

Definition

 

·         Ligament of the femoral head

 

Acetabular fossa to fovea capitis

holds femur in place

 

·         Transverse Acetabular ligament

 

From one side of the acetabular notch to the other

 

Ventrocaudal part of acetabulum

deepens the acetabulum by forming a lip around it

 

Term

 

.  In order for a coxal joint luxation to occur, what structure must be damaged?  If such a luxation were to occur, which direction would the proximal end of the femur typically migrate?  Why?

 

Definition

 

·         Ligament of the femoral head will be the one that is primarily damaged (will probably have some damage to the joint capsule as well)

 

·         Move cranial and dorsal due to pull of gluteals

 

Term
Definition