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BSC 116- Exam 1
Chapter 1, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, & 29
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Biology
01/31/2012

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Term
Ch 1

In order for a hypothesis to be able to be used in science, which of the following must be true?

It must be proven correct.

It must be popularly accepted.

It represents established facts.

It is testable and falsifiable.

It must be reproducible.
Definition
It is testable and falsifiable.
Term
The Scientific Method

In the course of a conversation, you observe that three of your friends like horror movies. Horror movies happen to be your favorite type of movie as well. You also know that all of these friends were born in the same week that you were, even in the same year.

An astrology-loving friend hypothesizes that people born in that week like horror movies more than other genres of movies. You decide to use the scientific method to test this hypothesis.

What should you do next?

Come up with a theory to explain why movie preference is related to birth week.

Perform experiments to test your hypothesis.

Propose several alternative hypotheses.

Refine your hypothesis.
Definition
Perform experiments to test your hypothesis.
Term
The Scientific Method

Which of the following experiments would best test your hypothesis?

Ask your friends if they also like the same type of music that you like.

Interview all of your friends and find out if the ones born in other weeks also like the same types of movies that you like.

Find other people born in the same week and ask them what their favorite type of movie is.

Find other people born in the same week and tell them what your favorite movie is. Ask them if they also liked that movie.
Definition
Find other people born in the same week and ask them what their favorite type of movie is.
Term
The Scientific Method

You want to be as careful as possible that the variable of interest--namely, favorite movie genre--is clearly distinguishable from any other variables. To do so, first you must be careful to find a random sampling of people who share your birth week, avoiding simply talking to friends with whom you share common interests. Second, you need to provide your subjects with a questionnaire on which they are asked to circle their favorite genre from a list, so that you are not tempted to interpret their answers in your favor. You must be certain not to tell them what you are seeking to prove or disprove; that way their answers will not be influenced by your stated goal. You must also make the surveys anonymous to ensure that your subjects aren't simply giving you the answers they think you want them to give.

After finding a random sample of 10 people born in the same week as you and your friends, you obtain these results from their questionnaires:

4 of them prefer comedies,
3 of them prefer dramas,
2 of them prefer action movies, and
1 of them prefers westerns.

As a control, you also interview 14 random people with birthdays throughout the year. You obtain results similar to the results of your experimental group and your friends:


3 of them prefer comedies,
4 of them prefer dramas,
3 of them prefer action movies, and
1 of them prefers westerns

What should you do next?

Refine your hypothesis.

Come up with a theory to explain why movie preference is only sometimes related to birth week.

Perform further interviews until you find more people who prefer horror movies.

Assume that the 10 people you interviewed were lying about their birth week. Conduct further interviews in which you ask movie preference first and only ask about birth week when people say they like horror movies.
Definition
Refine your hypothesis.
Term
Ch 1

A controlled experiment is one in which:

the experiment proceeds at a slow pace to guarantee that the scientist can carefully observe all reactions and process all experimental data.

the experiment is repeated many times to ensure that the results are accurate.

there are at least two groups, one of which does not receive the experimental treatment.

there are at least two groups, one differing from the other by two or more variables.

there is one group for which the scientist controls all variables.
Definition
there are at least two groups, one of which does not receive the experimental treatment.
Term
Ch 1

Which of the following is the best description of a control for an experiment?

The control group is exposed to only one variable rather than several.

The control is left alone by the experimenters.

Only the experimental group is tested or measured.

The control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable.

The control group is kept in an unchanging environment.
Definition
The control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable.
Term
Ch 1

Select the correct statement about the process of scientific inquiry.

It is possible to test hypotheses, such as those involving historical events, without conducting experiments.

The goal of scientific research is to prove the stated hypothesis.

If the results of an experiment do not support the hypothesis that is tested, the experiment is badly designed.
Definition
It is possible to test hypotheses, such as those involving historical events, without conducting experiments.
Term
Classification Schemes

Prokaryotic cells are found in the domain(s) _____.

Bacteria and Archaea

Bacteria and Eukarya

Bacteria and Protista

Bacteria

Protista and Archaea
Definition
Bacteria and Archaea
Term
Classification Schemes

In the five-kingdom system, prokaryotes are placed in the kingdom _____.

Protista

Animalia

Fungi

Plantae

Monera
Definition
Monera
Term
Classification Schemes

A human is classified in domain _____ and kingdom _____.

Eukarya ... Fungi

Eukarya ... Protista

Eukarya ... Plantae

Eukarya ... Animalia

Bacteria ... Archaea
Definition
Eukarya ... Animalia
Term
Classification Schemes

A rose bush is classified in domain _____ and kingdom _____.

Eukarya ... Fungi

Eukarya ... Protista

Eukarya ... Plantae

Eukarya ... Animalia

Bacteria ... Archaea
Definition
Eukarya ... Plantae
Term
Classification Schemes

In the five-kingdom system, which kingdom consists primarily of unicellular eukaryotes?

Fungi

Protista

Plantae

Animalia

Monera
Definition
Protista
Term
Classification Schemes

In the two-kingdom system, why were fungi classified in the kingdom Plantae?

They are sedentary.

They are heterotrophs.

They lack cell walls.

They are unicellular.

They are autotrophs.
Definition
They are sedentary.
Term
Classification Schemes

There is(are) _____ eukaryotic domain(s).

one

two

three

four

five
Definition
one
Term
Ch 26

Cladograms (a type of phylogenetic tree) constructed from evidence from molecular systematics are based on similarities in

the pattern of embryological development.

habitat and lifestyle choices.

mutations to homologous genes.

morphology.

biochemical pathways.
Definition
mutations to homologous genes.
Term
Ch 26

In a comparison of birds and mammals, having four limbs is

a character useful for sorting bird species.

a character useful for distinguishing birds from mammals.

a shared ancestral character.

an example of analogy rather than homology.

a shared derived character.
Definition
a shared ancestral character.
Term
Ch 27

The predatory bacterium, Bdellovibrio bacteriophorus, drills into a prey bacterium and, once inside, digests it. In an attack upon a gram-negative bacterium that has a slimy cell covering, what is the correct sequence of structures penetrated by B. bacteriophorus on its way to the prey's cytoplasm?

1. membrane composed mostly of lipopolysaccharide
2. membrane composed mostly of phospholipids
3. peptidoglycan
4. capsule

2, 4, 3, 1

1, 3, 4, 2

4, 3, 1, 2

1, 4, 3, 2

4, 1, 3, 2
Definition
4, 1, 3, 2
Term
Ch 27

In a bacterium that possesses antibiotic resistance and the potential to persist through very adverse conditions, such as freezing, drying, or high temperatures, DNA should be located within, or be part of, which structures?

1. nucleoid region
2. endospore
3. fimbriae
4. plasmids

1 and 2 only

1 and 4 only

1, 2, and 4

2 and 4 only

1 only
Definition
1, 2, and 4
Term
Ch 27

Match the numbered terms to the description that follows. Choose all appropriate terms.

1. autotroph
2. heterotroph
3. phototroph
4. chemotroph
an organism that obtains both carbon and energy by ingesting prey

2 and 4

1 and 3

1 only

4 only

1, 3, and 4
Definition
2 and 4
Term
Ch 27

Which of the following involves metabolic cooperation among prokaryotic cells?

biofilms

photoautotrophy

binary fission

endotoxin release

endospore formation
Definition
biofilms
Term
Ch 27

Which of the following statements is not true?

Archaea and bacteria have different membrane lipids.

Both archaea and bacteria generally lack membrane-enclosed organelles.

The cell walls of archaea lack peptidoglycan.

Only some archaea use to oxidize , releasing methane.

Only bacteria have histones associated with DNA.
Definition
Only bacteria have histones associated with DNA.
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

The cells of _____ and _____ have modified mitochondria.

chlorophytes ... ciliates

trichomonads ... diplomonads

euglenozoans ... alveolates

fungi ... stramenopiles

dinoflagellates ... metazoans
Definition
trichomonads ... diplomonads
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

The members of _____ are characterized by cells with small membrane-bounded cavities under their cell membranes.

Rhodophyta

Chlorophyta

Alveolata

Stramenopila

Mycetozoa
Definition
Alveolata
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

Golden algae, brown algae, red algae, chlorophytes, and charophyceans are some examples of protists that are _____.

photoheterotrophic

decomposers

chemoheterotrophic

photosynthetic

chemoautotrophic
Definition
photosynthetic
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

Which of these groups consist of parasitic flagellated cells, such as Trypanosoma, the organism that causes sleeping sickness?

ciliates

diatoms

metazoans

kinetoplastids

brown algae
Definition
kinetoplastids
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

Which three groups contain large algae known as seaweeds?

diatoms, golden algae, and brown a
algae

plants, fungi, and choanoflagellates

dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and green algae

chlorophytes, charophyceans, and red
algae

brown algae, red algae, and green algae
Definition
brown algae, red algae, and green algae
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

Stramenopiles include all of the following groups EXCEPT ______.

cellular slime molds

golden algae

brown algae

water molds

diatoms
Definition
cellular slime molds
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

Which of these groups is characterized by glasslike walls containing silica?

plants

diatoms

brown algae

plasmodial slime molds

diplomonads
Definition
diatoms
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

Plasmodium, the parasitic organism that causes malaria, is a _____.

plasmodial slime molds

ciliate

apicomplexan

diatom

entamoeba
Definition
apicomplexan
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

A paramecium is a(n) _____.

metazoan

dinoflagellate

ciliate

apicomplexan

diatom
Definition
ciliate
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

The largest seaweeds are _____.

red algae

diatoms

brown algae

green algae

dinoflagellates
Definition
brown algae
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

All of the organisms classified as _____ move and feed using cilia.

dinoflagellates

apicomplexans

ciliates

diatoms

diplomonads
Definition
ciliates
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

Which group is characterized by cells with fine hairlike projections on their flagella?

Stramenopila

Rhodophyta

Alveolata

Euglenozoa

Metazoa
Definition
Stramenopila
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

Which of these algal groups possess a photosynthetic pigment that allows them to live in deep water?

metazoans

diatoms

green algae

red algae

brown algae
Definition
red algae
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

Which of these groups includes both aquatic decomposers and the parasites responsible for the powdery mildew of grapes and late potato blight? \

water molds

red algae

plants

plasmodial slime molds

diatoms
Definition
water molds
Term
Tentative Phylogeny of Eukaryotes

Which algal group has chloroplasts much like those of green plants in structure and pigment makeup?

red algae

chlorophytes

brown algae

golden algae

diatoms
Definition
chlorophytes
Term
Ch 28

Which of the following is characteristic of ciliates?

They can exchange genetic material with other ciliates by the process of mitosis.

They are relatively specialized cells.

They are often multinucleate.

Most live as solitary autotrophs in fresh water.

They use pseudopods as locomotory structures or as feeding structures
Definition
They are often multinucleate.
Term
Ch 28

Diatoms are mostly asexual members of the phytoplankton. Diatoms lack any organelles that might have the 9+2 pattern. They obtain their nutrition from functional chloroplasts, and each diatom is encased within two porous, glasslike valves. Which question would be most important for one interested in the day-to-day survival of individual diatoms?

How does carbon dioxide get into these protists with their glasslike valves?

How do diatoms with their glasslike valves keep from sinking into poorly lit waters?

How do diatom sperm cells locate diatom egg cells?

How do diatoms get transported from one location on the water's surface layers to another location on the surface?

How do diatoms with their glasslike valves avoid being shattered by the action of waves?
Definition
How do diatoms with their glasslike valves keep from sinking into poorly lit waters?
Term
Ch 28

You are given five test tubes, each containing an unknown protist, and your task is to read the following description and match these five protists to the correct test tube.

In test tube 1, you observe an organism feeding. Your sketch of the organism looks very similar to the figure. When light, especially red and blue light, is shone on the tubes, oxygen bubbles accumulate on the inside of test tubes 2 and 3. Chemical analysis of test tube 3 indicates the presence of substantial amounts of silica. Chemical analysis of test tube 2 indicates the presence of a chemical that is toxic to fish and humans. Microscopic analysis of organisms in test tubes 2, 4, and 5 reveals the presence of permanent, membrane-bounded sacs just under the plasma membrane. Microscopic analysis of organisms in test tube 4 reveals the presence of an apicoplast in each. Microscopic analysis of the contents in test tube 5 reveals the presence of one large nucleus and several small nuclei in each organism.

Test tube 2 contains

Plasmodium.

Pfiesteria (dinoflagellate).

Paramecium.

Navicula (diatom).

Entamoeba.
Definition
Pfiesteria (dinoflagellate).
Term
Ch 28

Reinforced, threadlike pseudopods that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic of which group?

radiolarians and forams

gymnamoebas

entamoebas

amoeboid stage of cellular slime molds

oomycetes
Definition
radiolarians and forams
Term
Ch 28

Living diatoms contain brownish plastids. If global warming causes blooms of diatoms in the surface waters of Earth's oceans, how might this be harmful to the animals that build coral reefs?

The coral animals, which capture planktonic organisms, may be outcompeted by the diatoms.

The coral animals may die from overeating the plentiful diatoms, with their cases of silica.

The coral animals' endosymbiotic dinoflagellates may get "shaded out" by the diatoms.

The diatoms' photosynthetic output may over-oxygenate the water.
Definition
The coral animals' endosymbiotic dinoflagellates may get "shaded out" by the diatoms.
Term
Ch 28

Which of the features below are found in all protist lineages?

Organelles that arose by secondary endosymbiosis.

Plastids

Mitochondria
Definition
Mitochondria
Term
Fungal Morphology and Physiology

The following statements describe something about the body structures or functions of fungi. Identify those statements that are correct.

Select all that apply.

Some fungi secrete digestive enzymes into the environment and then absorb the digested nutrients.

Mycelia are made up of small-diameter hyphae that form an interwoven mass, providing more surface area for nutrient absorption.

Nutrients can flow through the entire mycelium in fungi with coenocytic hyphae, but not in fungi with septate hyphae.

All fungi are heterotrophs; some species live as decomposers and others as symbionts.

Some fungi can grow as either filamentous or single-celled forms.

Cellulose gives rigidity and strength to the cell walls of fungi.
Definition
Some fungi secrete digestive enzymes into the environment and then absorb the digested nutrients.

Mycelia are made up of small-diameter hyphae that form an interwoven mass, providing more surface area for nutrient absorption.

All fungi are heterotrophs; some species live as decomposers and others as symbionts.

Some fungi can grow as either filamentous or single-celled forms.
Term
Ch 31

Select the correct statement(s) about the origin of fungi.

Select all that apply.

Fungi are more closely related to plants than to animals.

Multicellularity probably arose independently in fungi and animals.

Fungi evolved after the first plants colonized land.
Definition
Multicellularity probably arose independently in fungi and animals.
Term
Ch 31

Which feature seen in chytrids supports the hypothesis that they diverged earliest in fungal evolution?

parasitic lifestyle

coenocytic hyphae

flagellated spores

formation of resistant zygosporangia

the absence of chitin within the cell wall
Definition
flagellated spores
Term
Ch 31

For several decades now, amphibian species worldwide have been in decline. A significant proportion of the decline seems to be due to the spread of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Chytrid sporangia reside within the epidermal cells of infected animals, animals that consequently show areas of sloughed skin. They can also be lethargic, which is expressed through failure to hide and failure to flee. The infection cycle typically takes four to five days, at the end of which zoospores are released from sporangia into the environment. In some amphibian species, mortality rates approach 100%; other species seem able to survive the infection.

The chytrid sporangia reside within the amphibian epidermal cells. Consequently, which term(s) apply to Bd?

1. ectosymbionts
2. parasites
3. commensals
4. pathogens
5. endosymbionts

2, 3, and 5

1 and 2

1 and 3

2 and 4

2, 4, and 5
Definition
2, 4, and 5
Term
Ch 31

Plasmogamy can directly result in which of the following?

1. cells with a single haploid nucleus
2. heterokaryotic cells
3. dikaryotic cells
4. cells with two diploid nuclei

1 or 3

2 or 3

1 or 2

3 or 4

2 or 4
Definition
2 or 3
Term
Ch 31

Please refer to the following information to answer the question.

Diploid nuclei of the ascomycete, Neurospora crassa, contain 14 chromosomes. A single diploid cell in an ascus will undergo one round of meiosis, followed in each of the daughter cells by one round of mitosis, producing a total of eight ascospores.

What is the ploidy of a single mature ascospore?

tetraploid

haploid

diploid

triploid

polyploid
Definition
haploid
Term
Ch 31

The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of fungal mycelia is primarily related to

avoiding sexual reproduction until the environment changes.

the increased probability of contact between different mating types.

an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition.

the ability to form haustoria and parasitize other organisms.

the potential to inhabit almost all terrestrial habitats.
Definition
an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition.
Term
Terrestrial Adaptations of Plants

Which of these characteristics is shared by algae and seed plants?

roots and shoots

embryo development within gametangia

vascular tissue

pollen

chloroplasts
Definition
chloroplasts
Term
Ch 29

Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. All land plants exhibit alternation of generations. No charophytes exhibit alternation of generations. Keeping in mind the recent evidence from molecular systematics, the correct interpretation of these observations is that

charophytes are not related to either green algae or land plants.

plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae.

scientists have no evidence to indicate whether or not land plants evolved from any kind of alga.

alternation of generations cannot be beneficial to charophytes.

land plants evolved directly from the green algae that perform alternation of generations.
Definition
plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae.
Term
Ch 29

Big Bend National Park in Texas is mostly Chihuahuan desert, where rainfall averages about 10 inches per year. Yet, it is not uncommon when hiking in this bone-dry desert to encounter mosses and ferns. One such plant is called "flower of stone." It is not a flowering plant, nor does it produce seeds. Under arid conditions, its leaflike structures curl up. However, when it rains, it unfurls its leaves, which form a bright green rosette on the desert floor. Consequently, it is sometimes called the "resurrection plant." At first glance, it could be a fern, a true moss, or a spike moss.

Which of the following characteristics is (are) possessed in common by true mosses, ferns, and spike mosses, and therefore becomes useless at helping to determine to which of these groups flower of stone belongs?

1. a sporophyte generation that is dominant
2. true leaves and roots
3. flagellated sperm
4. strobili
5. alternation of generations

3 and 5

1 and 5

5 only

2 and 3

2, 4, and 5
Definition
3 and 5
Term
Ch 29

Which of the following is true of the life cycle of mosses?

Spores are primarily distributed by water currents.

The haploid generation grows on the sporophyte generation.

The growing embryo gives rise to the gametophyte.

The sporophyte generation is dominant.

Antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes.
Definition
Antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes.
Term
Fern Life Cycle

In mosses gametes are produced by _____; in ferns gametes are produced by _____.

meiosis ... meiosis

binary fission ... mitosis

mitosis ... mitosis

mitosis ... meiosis

meiosis ... mitosis
Definition
mitosis ... mitosis
Term
Fern Life Cycle

Where do fern antheridia develop?

on the tip of the sporophyte

on the underside of the gametophyte

on the tip of the haploid protonema

on the underside of the sporophyte

on the tip of the gametophyte
Definition
on the underside of the gametophyte
Term
Fern Life Cycle

The conspicuous part of a fern plant is a _____.

haploid gametophyte

diploid sorus

diploid sporophyte

diploid gametophyte

haploid sporophyte
Definition
diploid sporophyte
Term
Ch 29

The question is based on the following description.

A biology student hiking in a forest happens upon an erect, 15-cm-tall plant that bears microphylls and a strobilus at its tallest point. When disturbed, the cone emits a dense cloud of brownish dust. A pocket magnifying glass reveals the dust to be composed of tiny spheres with a high oil content.

This organism probably belongs to the same phylum as the

ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns.

mosses, hornworts, and liverworts.

charophytes.

conifers.

club mosses, quillworts, and spike mosses.
Definition
club mosses, quillworts, and spike mosses.
Term
Ch 29

Select the correct statement about charophytes, a taxon of green algae.

Living charophytes are the algal ancestors of land plants.

Charophytes and land plants share four distinctive traits.

Charophytes are embryophytes.
Definition
Charophytes and land plants share four distinctive traits.
Term
Ch 29

Which of the following is not evidence that charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants?

similar sperm structure

the presence of chloroplasts

similarities in cell wall formation during cell division

similarities in proteins that synthesize cellulose

genetic similarities in chloroplasts
Definition
the presence of chloroplasts
Term
NOT MAKE NOTECARDS FOR:

-Assignment 1: 3
-Assignment 2: 3, 5
-Assignment 3: 3
-Assignment 4: ---
-Assignemnt 5: 1 (Part A & C)
-Assignment 6: 5 (Part B)
Definition
LOOK ON MASTERINGBIOLOGY FOR