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Biopsychology
Final Material (Ch. 15.4-16)
101
Psychology
04/28/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Bilateral Duplication
Definition
humans generally have 2 of everything, except a few midline structures; including the brain (Left and Right hemispheres)
Term
Cerebral Commissures
Definition
tracts of neurons that connect the hemispheres of the brain
Term
Lateralization of Function
Definition
refers to the major functional differences between the hemispheres of the brain
Term
Split-Brain Patients
Definition
patients whose left and right hemispheres have been separated by commissurotomy
Term
Commissurotomy
Definition
the cutting of the cerebral commissures; thus removing the neural connections between the hemispheres, hence the name "split-brain"
Term
Marc Dax
Definition
1836, France: the first to present to a medical convention that brain damage causing deficits in speech was not restricted to the right hemisphere (i.e. must have left hemisphere damage to affect speech)
Term
Aphasia
Definition
brain-damage-produced deficit in the ability to produce or comprehend language
Term
Broca's Area
Definition
the inferior prefontal cortex of the left hemisphere
Term
Apraxia
Definition
like aphasia, is almost always associated with left-hemisphere damage even though it's symptoms are bilateral; patients have difficulty doing movements on command, but they can do so when they are not thinking of it
Term
Hugo-Karl Liepmann
Definition
described apraxia as similar to aphasia
Term
Cerebral Dominance
Definition
one hemisphere assumes the dominant role in the control of all complex behavioral and cognitive processes, and the other plays a only a minor role (Not currently accepted)
Term
Dominant Hemisphere
Definition
left hemisphere
Term
Minor Hemisphere
Definition
right hemisphere
Term
Sodium Amytal Test (WADA)
Definition
language lateralization test given to patients prior to neurosurgery; results are used to plan the surgery around areas of the cortex likely to be involved in language; an injection into the carotid artery numbs the brain in an ipsolateral fashion temporarily
Term
Dichotic Listening Test
Definition
noninvasive; 3 pairs of spoken digits are presented through earphones, the specific digits differing for each ear are heard simultaneously. the subject is then asked to recall all 6 digits
Term
Dextrals
Definition
right-handed people
Term
Sinestrals
Definition
left-handed people
Term
Milner
Definition
1974- found that almost all right-handed people had left hemisphere language lateralization for speech (92%); also, almost all left handed and ambidextrous patients also had left hemisphere language lateralization for speech (69%); these figures are likely under-estimations
Term
McGlone
Definition
(1977,1980) By studying unilateral stroke victims, she concluded that brains of males are more lateralized than brains of females
Term
WAIS
Definition
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; test for language lateralization (verbal and performance)
Term
Methods of Studying Language Lateralization
Definition
1. comparing the effects of unilateral left- and right- hemisphere brain lesions
2. the sodium amytal test
3. the dichotic listening test
4. functional brain imaging
Term
Corpus Callosum
Definition
the largest cerebral commissure
Term
Myers and Sperry
Definition
1953; corpus callosum experiments on cats; cats were taught visual discrimination via food reward (circle vs. square); in experimental cats, the optic chaism and corpus callosum were severed in order to test each hemisphere separately; results concluded that each hemisphere was able to function without the other, but in experimental cats, when the eye patch was moved from one eye to another, causing the cats to re-learn the discrimination (each hemisphere had to learn the task separately)
Term
Transected
Definition
cut completely through
Term
Scotoma
Definition
an area of blindness
Term
Split-Brain Monkey Conclusion
Definition
there is no transfer of fine tactual and motor information in split-brain monkeys because the somatosensory and motor fibers involved in fine sensory and motor discriminations are all contralateral.
Term
Vogel and Bogen
Definition
initiated a program of commissurotomy for the treatment of severe intractable cases of epilepsy; the idea being that the severity of the seizure would be reduced if they were limited to the hemisphere of origin; highly effective to the point that many stop having major seizures entirely
Term
Cross-Cueing
Definition
the communication of the two hemispheres by an external route; e.g. the red/ green test
Term
Physical-Dependence Theories of Addiction
Definition
physical dependence traps addicts in a vicious circle of drug taking and withdrawal symptoms. idea is that the drug taking continues to avoid withdrawal symptoms
Term
Detoxified Addicts
Definition
addicts who have no drugs in their bodies and who are no longer experiencing withdrawal symptoms
Term
Positive-Incentive Theories of Addiction
Definition
most addicts take drugs not to escape or to avoid the unpleasant consequences of withdrawal, but rather to obtain the drugs' positive effects
Term
Positive-Incentive
Definition
expected pleasure-producing
Term
Hedonia
Definition
pleasure- pleasurable effects
Term
Positive-Incentive Value
Definition
refers specifically to the anticipated pleasure associated with an action (e.g. taking a drug)
Term
Hedonic Value
Definition
refers to the amount of pleasure that is actually produced
Term
Incentive-Sensitization Theory
Definition
the want for the drug (the pleasurable affects) is greater than the actual effects of the drug; addicts often crave the pleasure the drug once brought even though it no longer has the same effect
Term
Relapse
Definition
to return to one's drug taking habit after a period of voluntary abstinence
Term
Fundamental Causes of Relapse
Definition
1. Stress
2. Drug priming
3. Exposure to environmental cues
Term
Drug Priming
Definition
a single exposure to the formerly abused drug
Term
Intracranial Self-Stimulation (ICSS)
Definition
animals (and humans) will administer brief bursts of weak electrical stimulation to specific sites in their own brains
Term
Pleasure Centers
Definition
brain sites capable of mediating ICSS
Term
Priming
Definition
a rat that had once been self-stimulating does not automatically go back to pressing the lever; the researcher must first press it a couple of times before the rat "remembers" the full blown self-stimulation rates seen before
Term
Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System
Definition
a system of dopaminergic neurons that projects from the mesencephalon into various regions of the telencephalon
Term
Substantia Nigra & Ventral Tegmental Area
Definition
the neurons that compose the mesotelencephalic dopamine system
Term
Nucleus Accumbens
Definition
nucleus of the ventral striatum
Term
Nigrostriatal Pathway
Definition
most of the axons of dopaminergic neurons that have their cell bodies in the substantia nigra project to the dorsal striatum; degeneration is associated with Parkinson's Disease
Term
Mesocorticolimbic Pathway
Definition
most of the axons of dopaminergic neurons that have their cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area project to various cortical and limbic sites
Term
Cerebral Dialysis Studies
Definition
studies in which microsamples of extracellular fluid are continuously drawn from a particular area of the brain of a behaving subject and subjected to chemical analysis
Term
DA Agonists
Definition
increase intracranial self stimulation
Term
DA Antagonists
Definition
tends to decrease self stimulation
Term
Drug Self-Administration Paradigm
Definition
rats who learn that pressing a lever injects addictive drugs interveinously often mimic the drug addiction patterns in humans
Term
Cannulas
Definition
thin tubes
Term
Conditioned Place-Preference Paradigm
Definition
rats are given addictive drugs in small amounts in a distinctive room of a two-part box. Once sober, they are placed in the box with both rooms open and the amount of time spent in each box is monitored. Generally, they will spend more time in the drug-box when addictive drugs are involved
Term
Dopamine Transporters
Definition
molecules in the presynaptic membrane of dopaminergic neurons that attract dopamine molecule in the synaptic cleft and deposit them back inside the neuron (reuptake)
Term
Prefrontal Cortex
Definition
mediates priming-induced relapse
Term
Amygdala
Definition
mediates conditional cue-induced relapse
Term
Hypothalamus
Definition
mediates stress-induced relapse
Term
Helping-Hand Phenomenon
Definition
When the right hemisphere of a split-brain patient perceives a wrong answer given by the left hemisphere, the left hand (under the control of the right hemisphere) will move the help the left hemisphere find the correct answer (e.g. moving the right hand from the incorrect orange to the correct pencil)
Term
Visual Completion
Definition
In the case of a visual scotoma, the brain has the ability to "fill in the blanks" when it perceives missing visual information
Term
Chimeric Figures Test
Definition
named after Chimera, a mythical monster composed of the combined parts of different animals; photographs composed of fused together half-faces of two different people are flashed on a screen to split-brain patients. Subjects filled in the other half of the faces and reported nothing strange or missing when asked (left hemisphere reportings)
Term
Z Lens
Definition
Zaidel developed this contact lens that limits visual input to one hemisphere of split-brain patients while they scan complex visual material such as the pages of a book. Because this lens moves with the eye, it permits visual input to enter only one hemisphere, irrespective of eye movement.
Term
Interpreter
Definition
a hypothetical neuronal mechanism that continuously assesses patterns of events and tries to make sense of them
Term
Cognitive Theory of Kosslyn
Definition
found evidence that separate process in the visual system judge different types of spatial relations between objects: process for making categorical judgments about spatial relations and one for making precise judgments of the spatial relations between objects in terms of their distance and angle from each other
Term
Frontal Operculum
Definition
area of the frontal lobe cortex that lies just in front of the face area of the primary motor cortex; in the L hemisphere, it is Broca's area
Term
Planum Temporale
Definition
lies in the posterior region of the lateral fissure; thought to play a role in the comprehension of language; Wernicke's area
Term
Heschl's Gyrus
Definition
located in the lateral fissure just anterior to the planum temporale in the temporal lobe; the primary auditory cortex
Term
Schlaug
Definition
used MRI to measure the asymmetry of the planum temporale and relate it to the presence of perfect pitch
Term
Analytic-Synthetic Theory
Definition
there are two basic modes of thinking:
an analytic mode and a synthetic mode that have segregated during the course of evolution
It's main problem is its vagueness; it is difficult to subject this theory to empirical tests
Term
Motor Theory
Definition
the left hemisphere is specialized not for the control of speech per se, but for the control of fine movements, of which speech is only one category; support comes from reports that lesions that produce aphasia also produce other motor deficits; does not explain why motor function tends to become lateralized to the left hemisphere
Term
Linguistic Theory
Definition
primary role of the left hemisphere is language ; based on the study of deaf people who use ASL and who suffer unilateral brain damage
Term
Hopkins and colleagues
Definition
studied the laterality of four kinds of hand movements in chimps; communicative gestures, reaching, tool use, and coordinated bimanual activity: handedness is a strong indicator of lateralization in nonhumans
Term
Wernicke's Area
Definition
the left planum temporale; second language area; the cortical area of language comprehension
Term
Expressive
Definition
characterized by normal comprehension of both written and spoken language and by speech that retains its meaningfulness but still retains the superficial structure, rhythm, and intonation of normal speech.
Term
Wernicke's Aphasia
Definition
hypothetical form of aphasia; poor comprehension of written and spoken language and speech is meaningless
Term
Word Salad
Definition
the normal-sounding but nonsensical speech of Wernicke's aphasia
Term
Broca's Aphasia
Definition
hypothetical form of aphasia; normal comprehension of written and spoken language, but speech is labored, disjointed, and poorly articulated
Term
Arcuate Fasciculus
Definition
the pathway connecting Broca's and Wernicke's area
Term
Conduction Aphasia
Definition
comprehension and spontaneous speech would be largely intact, but difficulty repeating words that had just been heard
Term
Angular Gyrus
Definition
the area of left temporal and parietal cortex just posterior to Wernicke's area; another cortical area that has been implicated in language
Term
Dejerine
Definition
recognized the angular gyrus on the basis of a postmortem examination of a patient that suffered from alexia and agraphia
Term
Alexia
Definition
the inability to read
Term
Agrapha
Definition
inability to write
Term
Wernicke-Geschwind Model
Definition
seven components; primary visual cortex, angular gyrus, primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area, arcuate fasciculus, Broca's area, and primary motor cortex, all of which are in the left hemisphere
Term
Global Aphasia
Definition
a severe disruption of all language-related abilities
Term
Wilder Penfiend and colleagues
Definition
mapped the language areas of each patient's brain so that tissue involved in language could be avoided during the surgery
Term
Phoneme
Definition
the smallest unit of sound that distinguishes among various words in a language
Term
Ojemann
Definition
suggested that the language cortex is organized like a mosaic with the discreet columns of tissue that perform a particular function widely distributed throughout the language areas of the cortex
Term
Phonological Analysis
Definition
analysis of the sound of language
Term
Grammatical Analysis
Definition
analysis of the structure of language
Term
Semantic Analysis
Definition
analysis of the meaning of language
Term
Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
Definition
expands on the Wernicke-Geshwind model where the model is inconsistent with actual findings; consists of 3 assumptions
Term
Dyslexia
Definition
pathological difficulty in reading, one that does not result from general visual, motor, or intellectual deficits
Term
Developmental Dyslexias
Definition
dyslexias that becomes apparent when a child is learning to read
Term
Acquired Dyslexias
Definition
dyslexias that are caused by brain damage in individuals who were already capable of reading
Term
Lexical Procedure
Definition
based on specific stored information that has been acquired about written words: reader looks at the word, recognizes it, and says it; dominates in reading familiar words
Term
Phonetic Procedure
Definition
reader looks at the word, recognizes the letters, sounds them out, and says the word; dominates in reading unfamiliar words
Term
Surface Dyslexia
Definition
lost the lexical procedure, but retained phonetic procedure; lost ability to pronounce words based on memory, but retain ability to pronounce words whose pronunciation is consistent with common rules; difficulty in pronouncing words that do not follow common rules of pronunciation
Term
Deep Dyslexia
Definition
aka: phonological dyslexia; have lost the phonetic procedure, but retained the lexical procedure; lost ability to apply rules of pronunciation in reading, but retain the ability to pronounce familiar concrete words based on memories of them; incapable of pronouncing non-words, difficulty pronouncing uncommon words, and words whose meaning are abstract
Term
Hemispherectomy
Definition
an entire cerebral hemisphere's removal
Term
Left Hemisphere Dominance
Definition
words
letters
language sounds
complex movement
ipsolateral movement
verbal memory
finding meaning in memories
speech
reading
writing
arithmetic
categorical spatial judgments
Term
Right Hemisphere Dominance
Definition
faces
geometric patterns
emotional expression
nonlanguage sounds
music
tactile patterns
braille
movement in spatial patterns
nonverbal memory
perceptual aspects of memories
emotional content
mental rotation of shapes
geometry
direction
distance
spatial ability
coordinate spatial judgments