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Biomolecules
Exam #1
32
Physiology
02/20/2011

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Cards

Term
Organic Molecles
Definition

Contain C and H

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Term

Single bond

vs.

Double bonds

Definition

 

  • Share 1 pair of electrons
  • Share 2 pairs of electrons
  • [image]

 

Term
Aromatic hydrocarbons
Definition

inert, non-soluble

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Term
Carbonyl
Definition

 

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Term

Organic acid

(Carboxylic acid)

Definition

 

[image]

 

Term
Ketone
Definition

 

[image]

 

Term
Aldehyde
Definition

 

[image]

 

Term
Alcohol
Definition

 

[image]

 

Term
Phosphate
Definition

 

 

 

[image]

 

 

 

Term
Hydroxyl
Definition

 

 

 

 

[image]

 

 

 

 

Term
Amino
Definition

 

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Term
Carboxyl
Definition

 

[image]

 

Term
Sulfhydryl
Definition

 

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Term
Biomolecules
Definition

Organic molecules produced by living organisms.

(C,H,N,O and to a lesser extent P,S)

Term
Carbohydrates
Definition

Most abundant biomolecule 

(CH2O)n

[image]

 

Term
Monosaccharides
Definition

One subunit of sugar

ex: glucose, galactose, fructose

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Term
Disaccharides
Definition

2 subunits of sugar

Ex: sucrose (glucose + fructose)

 

* Monosaccharides combine in a dehydration reaction that forms water

 

[image]

 

Term
Polysaccharides
Definition

Multiple sugar units

ex: glycogen (lots of glucose) and cellulose

 

*Glycogen- sugar storage in the liver

*Cellulose- insoluble fiber, made by plants

 

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Term
Lipids
Definition

Biomolecules that are not soluble in water

ex: fatty acids

Term
Fatty acids
Definition

Carbon chains and a carboxyl group

 

 

[image]

 

 

Term
Saturated fatty acids
Definition

single bonds (solid at room temp)

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Term
Unsaturated fatty acids
Definition

double bonds (liquid at room temp)

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Term
Hydrogenated vegetable oils
Definition
generally have trans fat that increase the bad cholesterol and decrease "good" cholesterol
Term
Triglycerides
Definition

glycerol attached to 3 fatty acids

[image]

Term
Phospholipids
Definition

Amphipathic: hydrophilic and hydrophobic

[image]

Term
Steroids
Definition

5 ring shape with functional groups

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Term
Proteins
Definition

most versatile, made of chains of amino acids

Functions include:

structural

enzymes

antibodies

receptors

carriers

Term
Amino acids
Definition

carboxyl group, amino group, H, R

[image]

Term

1° structure

vs.

2° structure

Definition

*amino acid placement

 

*folded chain- determines function

Term
Nucleotide
Definition

transmit and store energy, transmit and store info

*Made of nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphate group

 

[image]

Term
ATP
Definition
Stores and transmits energy
Term
DNA & RNA
Definition

store information

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