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Biology Chapter 3: Cell Structure
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36
Science
10/07/2013

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Term
Light Microscope
Definition
A microscope in which light passes through one or more lenses to produce an enlarged image of a specimen.
Term
Electron Microscope
Definition
A microscope that forms an image of a specimen using a beam of electrons.
Term
Magnification
Definition
The quality of making an image appear larger than it's actual size.
Term
Resolution
Definition
A measure of the clarity of an image.
Term
Scanning Tunneling Microscope
Definition
Uses a needle-like probe to measure differences in voltage caused by electrons that leak, or tunnel, from the surface of the object being viewed.
Term
Cell Theory
(Name the three parts)
Definition
1. All living things are made of one or more cells.
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms.
3. All cells arise from existing cells.
Term
Cell Membrane
Definition
Encloses the cell and separates the cell interior (cytoplasm) from it's surroundings. Also regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
Term
Cytoplasm
Definition
The cell interior.
Term
Cytoskeleton
Definition
Microscopic fibers that hold structures in a cell.
Term
Ribosomes
Definition
The cellular structures on which proteins are made. The can be found on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Term
Prokaryote
Definition
A single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus and other internal compartments.
Term
Cell Wall
Definition
Surrounds the cell membrane and provides structure and support.
Term
Flagella
Definition
Long, threadlike structures that protrude from the cell's surface and enable movement.
Term
Eukaryote
Definition
An organism who's cells have a nucleus.
Term
Nucleus
Definition
An internal compartment that houses the cell's DNA.
Term
Organelle
Definition
A structure that carries out specific activities of the cell.
Term
Cilia
Definition
Short hairlike structures that some eukaryotic cells have.
Term
Phospholipid
Definition
A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids.
Term
Lipid Bilayer
Definition
The way the phospholipids are arranged on a cell membrane.
Term
Marker Proteins
Definition
Attach to carbohydrates on the cells' surface and advertise cell type.
Term
Receptor Proteins
Definition
Bind specific substances, such as signal molecules, outside the cell.
Term
Enzymes
Definition
Involved in important biochemical reactions in the cell.
Term
Transport Proteins
Definition
Aid the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
Term
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Definition
Helps to transport the proteins that are made by the attached ribosomes.
Term
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Definition
Lacks ribosomes, but makes lipids and breaks down toxic substances.
Term
Vesicle
Definition
Small, membrane-bound sac that transports substances in cells.
Term
Explain how proteins move through the cell.
Definition
1. Ribosomes make proteins on the rough ER. The proteins are packaged into vesicles.
2. The vesicles transport the newly made proteins from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus.
3. In the Golgi apparatus, proteins are processed and then packaged into new vesicles.
4. Many of these vesicles move to the cell membrane and release their contents outside the cell.
5. Other vesicles, including lysosomes, remain within the cytoplasm. Lysosomes digest and recycle the cell's used components by breaking down proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates.
Term
Golgi Apparatus
Definition
The Golgi apparatus is a set of flattened, membrane-bound sacs that serves as the packaging and distribution center of the cell.
Term
Lysosomes
Definition
A form of vesicles that are small, spherical organelles that contain the cell's digestive enzymes.
Term
Mitochondria
Definition
An organelle that harvests energy from organic compounds to make ATP, the main energy currency of cells.
Term
Choloroplasts (PLANT CELLS ONLY)
Definition
Organelles that use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water.
Term
Central Vacuole (PLANT CELLS ONLY)
Definition
Stores water and may contain substances such as ions, nutrients, and wastes.
Term
Draw a diagram of prokaryotic cells.
Definition
Prokaryotic Cells "lacks" nucleus ☞ KDM: Monera (bacteria)
Term
Draw a diagram of eukaryotic cells.
Definition
Eukaryotic "true" nucleus ☞ KDM: Protista (amoeba, paramecium, free-living one-celled organisms) ☞ KDM: Fungi (mushrooms, molds) ☞ KDM: Animalia (animals) ☞ KDM: Plantae (green plants)
Term
Tell how to properly focus a microscope.
Definition
First, make sure you have a clean slide with a cover slide over it on the microscope. Turn the microscope on. The first focusing thing you should do is the coarse adjustment; that means using the knobs that move the slide around and getting closer and further away from the lens. Next, when you can see your specimen pretty clearly, fine tune it until the specimen is perfectly clear. If you need to, use the diaphragm to change the amount of light coming through the microscope. Always start at 4x magnification, but if you need to, you can zoom in more. However, if you start at 4x magnification and then switch to 10x magnification, then you should not use the coarse adjustment knobs anymore! ONLY FINE TUNE. This is especially important if you move to 40x or 100x magnification.
Term
Tell about what you did during the microscope lab and what you saw.
Definition
During the lab, we examined some pond water and some expired tea. In the tea, we found slime mold and examined that. It wasn't very interesting. We looked at yeast, a fungi, and saw it grow. We found protists from the protista kingdom moving around. My group found a worm and a crustacean, both from the animalia kingdom.