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Biology Chapter 1
Biology Exploring life
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Biology
09/25/2008

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Term
System (or Biological System)- (biology theme 1)
Definition

 

 

Complex organization formed from a simpler  combination of parts.

 

 

 Example: Your Body, An ecosystem ..such as a forest is also a biological system. Like your body, an ecosystem has properties that depend on how its parts interact.

Term
Photosynthesis
Definition
Process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars. A plant obtains water and nutrients from the soil, carbon dioxide gas from the air, and energy from sunlight. The plant uses these three "inputs" from its environment or Photosynthesis...the process by which plants make food.
Term

 

 

Producer

Definition
Organism that makes its own food (autotroph) and produces organic molecules that serve as food for other organisms in its ecosystem. Such as plants.
Term

 

 

consumer

 

Definition

 

 

organism that obtains food by eating producers (autotrophs) or other consumers (Concepts 1.3, 7.1, 36.1)

Term

 

 

Homeostasis

Definition
Internal stability or "steady state" maintained by the bod. Example: Panting by dog to cool its body,
Term
 

[image]
Adaptation

Definition

 

 

 

 

Inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment (Concepts 1.3, 14.1)

Term

 

 

Population:

Definition

 

 

Group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area at the same time

Term

 

 

Natural Selection:

Definition

 

 

Process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the environment leave more offspring than do other individuals

Term

 

 

 

 

Evolution:

Definition

 

Generation-to-generation change in the proportion of different inherited genes in a population that account for all of the changes that have transformed life over an immense time

 

Term
Biosphere
Definition
All the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all Earth's ecosystems
Term
Ecosystem:
Definition
Ecosystem: community of living things plus the nonliving features of the environment that support them For example, this woodland ecosystem's community includes various types of trees and other plants, squirrels and other animals, and countless microscopic forms of life such as bacteria. The woodland's nonliving features include the sunlight, water, air, and soil upon which the living things depend.
Term
Organism:
Definition
Living thing-
Term
Cell
Definition
Cell: basic unit of living matter; separated from its environment by a plasma membrane. All organisms are made of one or more cells.
Term
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA):
Definition
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): molecule responsible for inheritance; nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose (Concepts 1.1, 11.2)
Term
Gene:
Definition
gene: unit of inherited information in DNA (Concept 1.1)
Term
Species
Definition
Species: distinct form of life (Concept 1.2)Bird, Bateria, Fish, etc.
Term
Domain:
Definition
Broadest category used to classify life forms (Concept 1.2)Three Domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
Term
Unicellular:
Definition
Entire body consists of a single cell (Concept 1.2)
Term
Prokaryotic cell:
Definition

Cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles

 

Bacteria and Archaea are made of Prokaryotic

Term
Eukaryotic cell:
Definition

Cell with a nucleus (surrounded by its own membrane) and other internal organelles

 

 

Eukaryotic: four kingdoms: protists, fungi, plants, and animals

Term
Multicellular:
Definition
Consisitng of many cells (Concept 1.2)
Term
Kingdom
Definition
Domaines are broken into Kingdoms Such as the kingdom:Eukarya includes four kingdoms: protists, fungi, plants, and animals.
Term
Explain the relationship between the terms species and organism.
Definition
Each different type of organism you observe during either walk is an example of a species.
Term
Explain two different ways that you could classify the following items: banana, lemon, sandwich, milk, orange, meatball, salad.
Definition
Bananna, Orange,Lemon-- Food, Fruits Salad--Food, Veggie Meatball-Food,Meat Sandwich, Food, Meat, Bread
Term
3. Explain the main difference between organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea and organisms of the domain Eukarya.
Definition
The organisms of domains Archaea and Bacteria are very tiny. Most of these organisms are unicellular, meaning that their entire bodies consist of just a single cell. Eukaryotic cells contain nuclei that separate DNA from the rest of the cell. Like the prokaryotes, many protists and certain fungi are unicellular and microscopic in size. But other protists, most fungi, and all animals and plants are multicellular.
Term
1. Which level of life includes all of the other levels in this list: organisms, cells, biosphere, molecules, ecosystems? Explain your answer.
Definition
Biosphere consists of all the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things. So everything listed is part of the biosphere
Term
2. Identify an ecosystem in the area where you live.
Definition
Pine Trees, mice, Huron River, grass, skunks, dirt, etc.
Term
What are genes? How are they related to DNA?
Definition
Genes are a unit of inherited information in DNA. There are several genes on a DNA strand making up the chemical responsible for inheritance.
Term
Identify ten themes of biology
Definition
1. Biological Systems 2. Cellular Basis of Life 3. Form and Function 4. Reproduction and Inheritance 5. Interaction with Enviornment 6. Energy and Life 7. Regulation 8. Adaptation and Evolution
Term

1. A biologist studying interactions between an animal species and its environment is studying biology at which level?

a. cell

b. biosphere

c. organism

d. ecosystem

Definition
Term

2. Which of the following is not considered an organism?

 

a. an oak leaf

b. a spider

c. an elephant

d. a bacterial cell

Definition
Term

3. To which domain of life do humans belong?

 

a. Animals

b. Eukarya

c. Archaea

d. none of the above

Definition
Eukarya
Term

4. DNA is found in the nucleus of

 

a. all cells.

b. eukaryotic cells only.

c. prokaryotic cells only.

d. unicellular organisms only.

Definition
a. all cells
Term

5. Which is a chemical product of photosynthesis that is used by consumers?

a. water

b. carbon dioxide

c. food

d. heat

Definition
c. food
Term

6. Which of the following processes provides the raw material for the other three to occur?

 

a. natural selection

b. adaptation

c. genetic variation

d. evolution

Definition
Do not know
Term

7. Some poisonous organisms are brightly colored, which warns others not to eat them. Which theme does this best represent?

a. adaptation

b. regulation

c. the cellular basis of life

d. biology and society

Definition
Term
. Explain why cells are considered the most basic unit of life.
Definition
Term
9. What is the main difference between organisms in domain Archaea and domain Eukarya?
Definition
Archaea are unicelluar and are prokayotic  or lack a nucleus that separates DNA information from th the cell.  Eukarya are multicelluar and have  where Eukaryotic cells the DNA is in a nucleus.
Term
10. Describe how a sports team could be considered a system.
Definition
Term
11. You read that a mantid's camouflage is an example of adaptation. How does its camouflage also represent the form-fits-function theme?
Definition
Term
12. Choose two objects that were not discussed in the text and describe how their form fits their function.
Definition
Term
13. Describe the interaction between a plant and its environment. What does the plant obtain from the environment and how does the plant affect its environment?
Definition
Term
14. Explain why life on Earth requires a continuous supply of energy from the sun.
Definition
Term
15. Explain why plants are called producers.
Definition
Term

15. Describe the natural selection process.

 

Definition
Term
Organize the terms below into a flowchart. Explain why you placed the term population where you did.[image]
Definition
Term
18. Analyzing Diagrams Suggest five questions a biologist might ask about the scene below. In your questions consider the various levels (scales) of life, the diversity of life, and biology themes.

[image]

Definition
Term

19. Analyzing Diagrams Study the incomplete diagram below and answer the following questions.
 

a. Describe the purpose of a diagram such as this one.


b. Create a list of items that you would place in the blank section of this diagram. Include at least eight items on your list.


c. How would you label each section? Explain your answer.

[image]

Definition
Term

20. Making Generalizations You have read that an ecosystem is a system, and a system is dependent on the interaction of its parts. What do you think might happen in an ecosystem if it lost all of its plant species?

Definition
Term

 

21. Evaluating Models Describe how your home could be considered an ecosystem.

 

 

Definition
Term

 

 

24. What's Wrong With These Statements?
Briefly explain why each statement is inaccurate or misleading.
a. Many organs working together make up a tissue.
b. Energy is recycled constantly in an ecosystem.
c. DNA is made of genes.

Definition
Term

 

23. Evaluating the Impact of Research Discuss a few positive ways in which the study of biology has affected you.

 

Definition
Term

 

22. Relating Cause and Effect In this chapter you read that DNA is responsible for the similarities between animal parents and their offspring. You also read that DNA is responsible for variations in organisms of the same population. Explain how both these statements can be true.

Definition
Term
.All the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things are called the
 
a.biosphere.
b.atmosphere.
c.ecosystem.
d.community.
e.population.
Definition
A. Biosphere
Term
 A community of living things in a particular area supported by nonliving features of the environment is a(n)
 
a.abiotic factor.
b.atmosphere.
c.ecosystem.
d.organism.
e.population.
Definition
C. Ecosystem
Term
3.Units of inherited information are called
 
a.proteins.
b.genes.
c.cells.
d.nuclei.
e.chemicals.
 
Definition
b. Genes
Term
A distinct type of organism is called a(n)
 
a.ecosystem.
b.cell.
c.community.
d.domain.
e.species.
Definition
E. Species
Term
 Cells without nuclei are called
 
a.unicellular cells.
b.multicellular cells.
c.prokaryotic cells.
d.eukaryotic cells.
e.domains.
Definition
c. Prokaryotic
Term
6.Most organisms within domain Archaea are  
 
a.unicellular and prokaryotic.
b.multicellular and prokaryotic.
c.unicellular and eukaryotic.
d.multicellular and eukaryotic.
e.not made of cells.
Definition
a. Unicellularand prokaryotic
Term
 
 [image] 7.Organisms made of many cells are said to be  
 
a.unicellular.
b.multicellular.
c.prokaryotic.
d.Archaea.
e.protists.
Definition

B. Muliticellular

Term
8.Cells that contain nuclei are called  
 
a.unicellular cells.
b.multicellular cells.
c.prokaryotic cells.
d.eukaryotic cells.
e.domains
Definition
D. Eukaryotic Cells
Term
Which kingdom is part of domain Eukarya?  
 
a.Protista
b.Fungi
c.Plantae
d.Animalia
e.all of the above
Definition
E. All of the above
Term
10.The process by which plants convert light energy to the stored energy of food is called  
 
a.adaptation.
b.inheritance.
c.photosynthesis.
d.regulation.
e.evolution.
Definition
C. Photosynthesis
Term
The specialized wings of a bird are an example of the ____________________ theme of biology.  
 
a.form and function
b.scientific inquiry
c.interaction with the environment
d.regulation
e.energy and life
Definition
A. Form & Function
Term
12.A dog’s ability to pant when it gets overheated is an example of ____________________ its internal environment.  
 
a.reproduction of
b.interaction with
c.evolution of
d.regulation of
e.natural selection of
Definition
D. Regulation
Term
13.Some organisms have the ability to change color to match their environment. This is an example of the ____________________ theme of biology.  
 
a.biology and society
b.regulation
c.adaptation and evolution
d.scientific inquiry
e.reproduction
Definition
C. Adaption and evolution
Term
14.Natural selection is the mechanism by which ____________________ occurs.  
 
a.regulation
b.photosynthesis
c.reproduction
d.scientific inquiry
e.evolution
Definition

E.Evolution

Term
 Regulating an internal environment despite changes in the external environment is called  
 
a.photosynthesis.
b.homeostasis.
c.natural selection.
d.adaptation.
e.evolution
Definition
B. Homostasis
Term
The food that an entire ecosystem depends on is made by  
 
a.consumers.
b.humans.
c.animals.
d.producers.
e.DNA.
Definition
d. Producers
Term
17.Life on Earth depends on a continuous supply of ____________________ from the sun.  
 
a.chemicals
b.elements
c.molecules
d.energy
e.producers
Definition
d. energy
Term
18.Which statement is true?  
 
a.All organisms gain energy in the form of heat.
b.All organisms are made of cells.
c.Energy can be recycled in an ecosystem.
d.Thinking and seeing require energy from the food you eat.
e.People who grow food in gardens are considered to be producers.
Definition
b. All organisms are made of cells
Term
 Your genes are passed to you from your parents. This is an example of the ____________________ theme of biology.
 
a.form and function
b.reproduction and inheritance
c.interaction with the environment
d.regulation
e.adaptation and evolution
Definition
b. reproduction and inhertance
Term
20.Asking questions about nature and then using observations or experiments to answer the questions is an example of the ____________________ theme of biology.
 
a.biology and society
b.regulation
c.form and function
d.scientific inquiry
e.interaction with the environment
 
Definition
d. scientific inquiry
Term
Definition