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Biological Psychology Exam # 4
Terms and concepts
58
Psychology
04/28/2010

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Term
List the three types of memory.
Definition
1) Sensory memory
2) Working memory - short term memory
3) Long Term Memory
Term
List the two types of Long Term Memory.
Definition
1) Explicit - Declarative
2) Implicit - Non-declarative
Term
What is experience dependent plasticity?
Definition
The ability of the brain, both in development and in adulthood, to be changed by the environment and by experience at any time.
Term
__________ - _________ plasticity describes how neural circuits can change in response to environmental events at pretty much any time.
Definition
Experience-dependent
Term
So how is memory and experience dependent plasticity driven?
Definition
Experience -> activity occurs across circuits -> drives change across circuits. It is best describe as pattern changes or efficacy changes in the synapses (changes in effectiveness).
Term
Break down the four primary ways in which the synapse region is altered (synaptic plasticity) to allow for learning and memory storage.
Definition
It changes its efficacy (increases PSP) by:
1) Changes involving synaptic transmitters:
a) More transmitter is released from the axon terminal
b) Postsynaptic membrane becomes larger and/or more sensitive to transmitter
c) Synapse enlarges both pre- and postsynaptically.
2) Changes involving inter-neuron modulation
a) Inter-neuron modulation causes increased transmitter release
3)Formation of new synapses
4)Rearrangement of synaptic input
Term
List the two different types of simple learning and give examples of each.
Definition
1) Non-associative
a) habituation - waning of response to a stimulus when there is no consequence to the stimulus (non responding to a stimulus when you realize it doesn't hurt/bother you)
b) sensitization - Enhancement; dropping a plate and being startled!
2) Associative
a) Classical
b) Operant
Term
Describe the mechanism for habituation
Definition
Since there is no consequence, neural support for response is diminished. Axon terminal branches are literally pulled back into the main axon. Its a pretty cool mechanism because our circuitry is only supporting what it needs to.
Term
What is Long term potentiation (LTP)?
Definition
LTP is the persistent increase in the efficacy of synaptic transmission that results from high frequency stimulation of certain CNS fiber systems.
- A form of neural plasticity first found in the hippocampus.
Term
What two things allows LTP to occur.
Definition
1)Glutamate input from the entorhinal cortex
2)Acetylcholine modulation from the basal forebrain
Term
The Hippocampus is an ancient cortex which consists of _____ layers of cells!
Definition
three!
Term
Externally, and in general, learning and memory comes from what?
Definition
practicing over and over again
Term
The hippocampus is more important for ___________ memory.
Definition
declarative
Term
List the actions that occur in the hippocampal synapse prior to LTP.
Definition
1) When ready to learn, Ach raises resting potential a little bit which makes it easier to have an action potential.
2) NMDA receptors have Mg blocking them, however, the local depolarization relieves the NMDA receptors from the Mg blockage.
3) When receptors are free of Mg blockage, calcium gets in and causes cell to activate 2nd messengers
4) 2nd messengers allow more Ampa receptors to be exposed which cause the membrane to become more sensitive and a bigger EPSP to result.
5) Also generates Retrograde signal generator which tells membrane to produce more transmitter since we have more receptors now.
Term
If NMDA receptor is blocked, ___ cannot be induced!
Definition
LTP
Term
The hippocampus likes about __-__ stimuli per second.
Definition
8 - 4
Term
How are LTP and Long term memory (LTM) linked?
Definition
They turn on different genes
- Experience -> causes neural circuits to work!
- Worry and anxiety can be controlled by drugs
- All experiences could ultimately lead to changes in cells.
- This is how Valium treats anxious people!
Term
LTP is a form of ______ __________.
Definition
neural plasticity
Term
____ is a neural mechanism that plays a role in experience dependent plasticity.
Definition
LTP
Term
___________ connections modify and make it easier for other circuits to work
Definition
cholinergic
Term
What do we mean when we say modulation is common?
Definition
-Just know there is an interaction of systems to create neural plasticity
- You can't simply point at a part of the brain and say "this does this".
Modulation is probably a critical component of most neural plasticity
Term
__________ - _________ plasticity = memory
Definition
Experience-dependent
Term
Real quick reminder: What is declarative memory and what is non-declarative memory?
Definition
Declarative - Things you know that you can tell others - Remembering your first day in school - knowing the capital of france
Non-declarative - Things you know that you can show by doing - Knowing how to ride a bicycle - Being more likely to use a word you heard recently - Salivating when you see a favorite food.
Term
List the 2 primary areas of the cerebral cortex. List the 4 association areas.
Definition
Primary areas:
1) Sensory
2) Motor
Association areas:
1) Frontal
2) Temporal
3) Parietal
4) Occipital
Term
In general, what is the function of the association areas?
Definition
1) For continued convergence sensory perception
2) For planning movement pre-motor
3) For "complex" function
Term
True or False: The cerebral hemispheres are symmetric and not in terms of anatomy and function
Definition
True
Term
"Primary" and "immediate association" areas tend to be involved with more "_________" function
Definition
symmetric
Term
"Further removed" association areas tend to be involved with "__________" function
Definition
asymmetric
Term
The nature of the normal hemispheres can be investigated by considering the results of _____ _______.
Definition
brain injury
Term
True or False: The cerebral hemispheres are the same
Definition
FALSE!!!!! They are NOT the same! Biatch! They do different things!
Term
In regards to the auditory cortex, language, and music, when musicians here music a larger part of which hemisphere is used?
Definition
the left
Term
Sometimes right parietal damage produces what three things?
Definition
1) Neglect - left half of the world is gone
2) Denial - Denying any problem; brain adjusts for them and convinces them that nothings wrong.
3) Both neglect and denial
Term
What happens if there is left parietal damage?
Definition
Damage to the language area and there might be some somatization loss, but will NOT lose right side of world
- The left hemisphere is more knowledge based; rigid. Provides stable detailed world view.
-The right hemisphere is good for detecting change; inform the left.
Term
Compare the right and left cerebral cortex based on neglect and denial, and language as well.
Definition
- Neglect and denial (anosognosia) after right but not left damage
-Language:
Left = artic., comp., semantics, etc.
Right = metaphor, ambig., poetry, etc.
Overall:
Left = stable, consistent preexisting "world view. Provides top-down processing
Right = discrepancy detection revise "world view" model. Paradigm shifts
Term
Describe Arthur and his disconnecting High-order perception and emotion.
Definition
- Capgras' Syndrome
- Arthur
- close acquaintances become impostors
- cannot connect cognitive and emotional memory
- Have - face recognition, emotion
- Do not have - face memory elaborated with emotion

Arthur thought his parents were impostors. He can recognize a face and distinguish different faces, but he doesn't remember the faces from one moment to the next. He can't connect emotion and cognitive memories. He also lost the emotional aspect of himself as well and consider himself an importer.
Term
What two things tells us how we know our acquaintances?
Definition
1) Looks
2) Emotions
Must put both together to recognize acquaintances
Term
List 3 characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy. What is the result of this type of epilepsy?
Definition
1) Focal site seizure
2) No convulsions
3) Temporary alteration of conscious state
Result:
-Too much connection
- Religious people know God
- Non-religious people know the meaning of life
The amygdala lies around this area of the brain so everything is loaded with emotion here
Term
What's the point of us having a "god" circuit and what's the point?
Definition
Biologically it gives us something to live for and makes us feel better when we feel lost and are searching for answers?? Actually, who the hell knows? Question not meant to be answered really.
Term
Define Experience Dependent Plasticity and give examples.
Define Experience Expectant Plasticity and give examples.
Definition
1)Experience Dependent Plasticity: The ability of the brain, both in development and in adulthood, to be changed by the environment and by experience at any time.
Examples:
-If someone learns something new in class that was different than what they previously thought the subject was about.
-If you are surfing in the ocean and get bit by a shark, your idea of surfing in the ocean may change
- learning to play a musical instrument or making new connections in an interesting class. Anything that changes the way we feel about something (experience).
2)Experience Expectant Plasticity: Where the nervous system expects certain things to happen. Usually occurs in critical periods and drives development of the nervous system afterward
Examples:
Sexual development in utero,
Term
List two developmental themes and two mechanisms that relate to plasticity & development being a lifelong process.
Definition
Developmental Themes:
1) Components are overproduced and then weeded out in an orderly process - Where we make too much of something and weed it out when we don't need it
2) Genes and experience interact to guide brain development.
Two mechanisms:
1) Experience expectant - genetics
2) Experience dependent - experience
Term
List and describe the two ways that the brain changes over time.
Definition
1) Genetics - Experience expectant plasticity - Nervous system expecting certain things to happen. Usually occurs in critical periods and drives development of the nervous system afterward
2) Experience - Experience dependent plasticity - brain changing to accommodate the experience we have (learning in class).
Term
In regards to neural plasticity, what does D.O. Hebb think the driving force behind changes in the brain is?
Definition
D.O. Hebb thinks that the brain changes based on increasing the strength of synapses! He thinks this is what underlies learning.
Term
List three factors which describe development and plasticity
Definition
1) Lifelong process
2) Brain accommodating experience
3) Guidance from genetics with experience regulating expression
Term
How is sexual development expected experience plasticity?
Definition
1) Occurs at critical period of fetal development
2) We start off as both, if fetus is XY, then the Y chromosome turns on specific male genes (gonad -> testes)
3) If no Y chromosome, we develop like female and male stuff deteriorates.
4) Testosterone has impact on brain and development of sexual characteristics. Testosterone -> estrogen -> circulates around brain and has masculine effect on brain. Females don't experience this.
5) What you get is a male brain due to exposure to testosterone during a critical period of development.
Term
If female pup is between 2 males during development what will happen?
Definition
She will be exposed to a little more circulating testosterone so she'll exhibit more male like behaviors - it's about this critical period.
Term
An enriched environment can be an example of what?
Definition
Experience dependent plasticity - Change that occurs at ANY time due to things that happen to us.
Term
If enrichment works, we should see effect in what two ways?
Definition
1) Behavior
a) More capable of learning
b) Learn more complicated things
c) Learn faster
2) Brain
a) Cortical neurons would appear different in those enriched
b) We might see more synapses.
Term
What five changes were observed in animals who lived in an enriched environment?
Definition
1) more dendritic branches/spines
2) Increases cortical thickness
3) Increased AChE (implies increase in Ach)
4) Increased cortical RNA and proteins
5) Enhanced learning for complex tasks.
Term
How much enrichment continues to produce enhancement? Speak of Romanian orphans and Head start.
Definition
You plateau at a certain point and stop producing enhancements once enrichment stops.
Romanian orphans were very impoverished and they actually showed less cortical activity on a PET scan
Head Start was a enrichment program for kids through grade school. It worked until they stopped enrichment. This decreased rate of drop out however.
Term
Learning should be ______ and ________
Definition
active and engaging
Term
What is the aging degenerative disease we talked about in class?
Definition
Alzheimer's Disease
Term
What two parts of the brain start to show degeneration most in Alzheimer's?
Definition
1) Basal forebrain - produces Ach
2) Hippocampus
Term
What is happening in Alzheimer's?
Definition
Losing neurons, neurons dieing off, neurons can't make connections anymore.
Term
Can enrichment prevent degeneration of the brain?
Definition
We don't know, but we do know that individuals can age better with enrichment - keep doing stuff.
Term
Putative causes of Alzheimer's Disease?
Definition
Genetics
Trace metals
immune reactions
slow virsues
blood flow
ABNORMAL PROTEINS!
Term
How does Alzheimer's show that memory is the holy grail?
Definition
Memory is how we do anything - live our lives
Term
In general, the ______ __________ is the means by which the brain can accommodate experience.
Definition
neural plasticity
Term
Define Experience Dependent Plasticity and give examples.
Define Experience Expectant Plasticity and give examples.
Definition
1)Experience Dependent Plasticity: The ability of the brain, both in development and in adulthood, to be changed by the environment and by experience at any time.
Examples:
-If someone learns something new in class that was different than what they previously thought the subject was about.
-If you are surfing in the ocean and get bit by a shark, your idea of surfing in the ocean may change
2)Experience Expectant Plasticity: