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BIOL 10
EXAM #2
77
Biology
02/27/2012

Additional Biology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Most Mechanical Processing of food occurs in the ___________.
Definition
Oral cavity and stomach.
Term
Which lists the major segments of the alimentary canal in the correct order?
Definition

1. Oral Cavity

2. Esophagus

3. Stomach

4. small intestine

5. large intestine

Term
Muscular movements that propels food through the esphogus?
Definition
Paristalsus
Term
What type of digestion is food subject to when entering the stomach?
Definition
Both mechanical and chemical digestion.
Term
Where does absorption primarily occur?
Definition
In the small intestine.
Term
Several important enzymes and other secretions aid in digestion as food moves down the ______________.
Definition
Alimentary Canal
Term

In the Oral Cavity what does salivary amylase help break down?

 

Think of the potatoe on the tongue example ;)

Definition
Starches
Term
In the stomach, pepsin helps break down _______.
Definition
proteins
Term
In the small intestine, bile helps break down _________.
Definition
fats and oils
Term

Chyme enters the small intestine from the stomach.

What happens at this point?

Definition
Mechanical digestion is essentially complete, but the other processes are ongoing or have not yet begun.
Term
What is the cause of more then half of all deaths in the USA?
Definition
Cardiovascular Diseases CVD
Term
CVD are diseases of the heart and blood vessels and can cause chronic health problems such as....
Definition
atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, and angina (chest pain)
Term
What kind of diets do professionals suggest to lose weight and prevent CVD's?
Definition
A diet low in fat and cholesterol.
Term
What compound in dark chocolate makes it beneficial to health?
Definition
Flavenols
Term
Which type of fatty acid is known to be anti-inflammatory?
Definition
omega 3
Term
Which Vitamin is believed to decrease the risk of cognitive decline in aging adults?
Definition
Vitamin B12
Term
What is the #1 preventable cause of cancer.
Definition
smoking
Term
What is homeostasis?
Definition
The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions.
Term
When blood glucose levels are high what does the Pancreas release?
Definition
Insulin
Term
A liver cell responds to insulin by doing what?
Definition
Taking in gluscose and converting it to glycogen.
Term
What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose?
Definition
Liver cells
Term
Body cells that respond to insulin include...
Definition
Liver cells as well as most other cells in the body.
Term
When blood glucose levels are low...
Definition
Term

Hormones are usually transported

through ______ and affect only cells with ______.

Definition
blood vessels . . . specific receptors
Term

When the concentration of glucose in the blood rises following the digestion of a meal, what is the hormonal response?

Definition
Insulin is released, but not glucagon.
Term

Which of the following is almost always associated with being overweight and underactive?

Definition
Type 2 Diabetes
Term

Anorexia and bulimia ______.

Definition
occur mainly in affluent countries where thinness is idealized
Term

Most nutrient absorption occurs in which part of the digestive system?

Definition
Small Intestine
Term

What is the main digestive function of the pancreas?

Definition

 

                    It produces digestive enzymes and neutralizes stomach acids.

Term
The stomach's gastric glands secrete _______?
Definition
mucus, digestive enzymes, and hydrochloric acid
Term

Muscular action propels food through the alimentary canal by a process called ______.

Definition
Peristalsis
Term

Certain amino acids are called essential because they ______.

Definition
cannot be made by the body from other compounds
Term

Most humans need about _______ kcal per day.

 

Definition
1,3000 - 1,800
Term
Which of the following is an example of a transgenic organism?
Definition
a bacterium with human gene for producing insulin
Term
Restriction Enzymes do....?
Definition
they cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences
Term
A supplemental appendix is to a book as a ____________ is to a bacterial chromosome.
Definition
Plasmid
Term
Gel electrophoresis separates pieces of DNA based on _________.
Definition
size and length
Term
The process of accurately amplifying a sample of DNA is called __________________________.
Definition
The polymarese chain reaction
Term
In a PCR reaction, the strands of DNA are first separated by ___.
Definition
Heating
Term
When is PCR particularly applicable?
Definition
When there are small quantities of DNA to analyze
Term
What is the correct sequence of events that occur in a PCR reaction?
Definition
separation of DNA strands; addition of primers; use of DNA polymerase to produce second strand of DNA
Term
DNA polymerase is a heat-sensitive enzyme. What is one thing that would need to be considered concerning the activity of this enzyme in PCR when the temperature is heated during each cycle to separate the DNA strands?
Definition
Term
What is used to seperate DNA strans to initiate the polymerase reaction?
Definition
Heat
Term
A quick and efficient way to generate many copies of a given length of DNA?
Definition
PCR
Term
What is a DNA Polymerase?
Definition
Enzyme that moves down the DNA strand synthesizing a complementary strand in PCR
Term
What is added by DNA to polymerase to form the complementary strand?
Definition
nucleotides
Term
Short DNA sequences that attach to the ends of DNA strands and serve as start points for synthesis of a complementary strand
Definition
Primers
Term
What are the 4 stages of food processing?
Definition

1. Ingestion - eating

2. Digestion

3. Absorption

4. Elimination

Term

While on the Beagle, Darwin was influenced by a book by Charles Lyell that suggested that Earth was ______ and sculpted by geologic processes that ______ today.

 

Definition
OLD and CONTINUE
Term

Which one of the following can create new alleles?


Definition
Mutation
Term

Natural selection can be defined as ______.

 

Definition
a process in which organisms with certain inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than other individuals
Term
Natural selection results in ....
Definition
evolutionary adaptation
Term

Homology is evidence of ______.

 

Definition
Common Ancestry
Term

The similarity of the embryos of fish, frogs, birds, and humans is evidence of ______.

 

Definition
Common Ancestry
Term

Which of the following is a population?

 

Definition
The termites infesting your house.
Term

All of the alleles of all of the genes within a population make up that population's ______.

 

Definition
gene pool
Term

Which of the following is the most likely explanation for a particular human population with a higher incidence of polydactyly (extra fingers/toes) than the human population as a whole?

 

Definition
founder effect
Term

What does Darwinian fitness measure?

 

Definition
reproductive success
Term

Most human need about ______ kcal per day.

 

Definition

                                           1,300-1,800

 

Term

Certain amino acids are called essential because they ______.

 

Definition
cannot be made by the body from other compounds
Term

Muscular action propels food through the alimentary canal by a process called ______.

 

Definition
peristalsis
Term
The stomach's gastric glands secrete...
Definition
mucus, digestive enzymes, and hydrochloric acid
Term

What is the main digestive function of the pancreas?

 

Definition
It produces digestive enzymes and neutralizes stomach acids
Term

Most nutrient absorption occurs in which part of the digestive system?

 

Definition
small intestine
Term

Anorexia and bulimia ______.

 

Definition
occur mainly in affluent countries where thinness is idealized
Term

Hormones are usually transported through ______ and affect only cells with ______.

 

Definition
blood vessels . . . specific receptors
Term

When the concentration of glucose in the blood rises following the digestion of a meal, what is the hormonal response?

 

Definition
Insulin is released, but not glucagon.
Term

Which of the following is almost always associated with being overweight and underactive?

 

Definition
type 2 diabetes
Term

Inheritance of certain genes increases the risk of getting certain cancers; thus, it can be said that ______.

Definition
predisposition to these cancers is inherited
Term

Many proto-oncogenes regulate ______.

Definition
cell division
Term

At one point, you were just an undifferentiated, single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these cells function as liver cells, some as muscle cells, some as red blood cells, while others play different roles. What name is given to the process that is responsible for this?

Definition
cellular differentiation
Term

What is a difference between embryonic and adult stem cells?

Definition
Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated; adult stem cells are partially differentiated.
Term

Which of these is a genetically modified organism?

Definition
an organism carrying a gene that was acquired by artificial means
Term

Genetically modifying human ______ cells may directly affect future generations.

Definition
gametic
Term

Which of the following best defines the term transgenic animal?

Definition
an animal containing a gene from another species
Term

Transgenic animals are currently used ______.

Definition
to produce potentially useful proteins
Term

Possible uses of reproductive cloning include ______.

Definition
ALL OF THESE