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Bio Final 2
BLAH!!!
13
Biology
05/06/2010

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Term
1) What is a genome?
14) In animals, meiosis results in gametes, and fertilization results in
C) zygotes.
Answer: C

15) Referring to a plant sexual life cycle, which of the following terms describes the process that leads directly to the formation of gametes?
B) gametophyte mitosis
Answer: B

16) Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations?
B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).
Answer: B

Refer to the life cycles illustrated in Figure 13.1 to answer the following questions.
Figure 13.1

17) Which of the life cycles is typical for animals?
A) I only
Answer: A

18) Which of the life cycles is typical for plants and some algae?
C) III only
Answer: C

19) Which of the life cycles is typical for most fungi and some protists?
B) II only
Answer: B

20) Which of the following is missing from the life cycle progression shown below?
sporophyte-meiosis-spore-________-gametophyte-mitosis-gametes- fertilization-zygote
B) mitosis
Answer: B

21) In animals, somatic cells are produced by mitosis and ________ are produced by meiosis.
A) gametes
Answer: A

22) All of the following are functions of meiosis in plants except
E) production of identical daughter cells.
Answer: E

23) After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is
D) haploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids.
Answer: D

24) How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that have replicated their DNA and are just about to begin meiosis?
D) They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.
Answer: D

25) When does the synaptonemal complex disappear?
A) late prophase of meiosis I
Answer: A

26) Which of the following terms belongs with the words synapsis, tetrads, and chiasmata?
B) crossing over
Answer: B

For the following questions, match the key event of meiosis with the stages listed below.

I. prophase I V. prophase II
II. metaphase I VI. metaphase II
III. anaphase I VII. anaphase II
IV. telophase I VIII. telophase II

27) Tetrads of chromosomes are aligned at the center of the cell; independent assortment soon follows.
A) I
B) II
C) IV
D) VII
E) VIII
Answer: B

28) Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs; crossing over may occur.
A) I
Answer: A

29) Centromeres of sister chromatids uncouple and chromatids separate.
E) VII
Answer: E

30) Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?
A) Homologous chromosomes are separated.
Answer: A

31) Which of the following is true of the process of meiosis?
C) Four haploid cells result.
Answer: C

32) Crossing over occurs during which phase of meiosis?
A) prophase I
Answer: A

Refer to the drawings in Figure 13.2 of a single pair of homologous chromosomes as they might appear during various stages of either mitosis or meiosis, and answer the following questions.



Figure 13.2

33) Which diagram represents prophase I of meiosis?
D) IV
Answer: D

34) Which drawing represents anaphase of mitosis?
A) II
Answer: A

35) Which drawing represents metaphase II of meiosis?
E) VI
Answer: E


36) Which drawing represents a stage of meiosis in which independent assortment might occur if there were more than one pair of chromosomes represented?
A) I
Answer: A

Use the following key to answer the following questions. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A. The statement is true for mitosis only.
B. The statement is true for meiosis I only.
C. The statement is true for meiosis II only.
D. The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.
E. The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.

37) A cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically identical.
Answer: A

38) Homologous chromosomes synapse and crossing over occurs.
Answer: B

39) Centromeres uncouple and chromatids are separated from each other.
Answer: E

40) Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs.
Answer: B

41) The process is preceded by replication of the DNA.
Answer: D

42) You have in your possession a microscope slide with meiotic cells on it and a light microscope. What would you look for if you wanted to identify metaphase I cells on the slide?
C) tetrads lined up at the center of the cell
Answer: C

You isolate DNA from three different cell types of an organism, determine the relative DNA content for each type, and plot the results on the graph shown in Figure 13.3. Refer to the graph to answer the following questions.


Figure 13.3

43) If the cells were from a plant, which sample might represent a gametophyte cell?
C) III
Answer: C

44) Which sample of DNA might be from a nerve cell arrested in G0 of the cell cycle?
A) I
Answer: A

45) Which sample might represent an animal cell in G2 phase of the cell cycle?
B) II
Answer: B

46) Which sample might represent a sperm cell?
C) III
Answer: C

47) During meiosis, cells go from what number to what number?
A) I to II to I to III
Answer: A

48) During mitosis, diploid cells go from what number to what number?
D) II to I
Answer: D

The following questions refer to the essential steps in meiosis described below.

1. formation of four new nuclei, each with half the chromosomes present in the parental nucleus
2. alignment of tetrads at the metaphase plate
3. separation of sister chromatids
4. separation of the homologues; no uncoupling of the centromere
5. synapsis; chromosomes moving to the middle of the cell in pairs

49) From the descriptions above, which of the following is the order that most logically illustrates a sequence of meiosis?
E) 5, 2, 4, 3, 1
Answer: E

50) Which of the steps take place in both mitosis and meiosis?
B) 3
Answer: B

51) When comparing prophase I of meiosis with prophase of mitosis, which of the following occurs only in meiosis?
B) Tetrads form.
Answer: B

52) Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?
B) synapsis
D) alignment of tetrads at metaphase plate
E) both B and D
Answer: E

53) How does the sexual life cycle increase the genetic variation in a species?
A) by allowing independent assortment of chromosomes
B) by allowing random fertilization
C) by allowing crossing over
E) A, B, and C
Answer: E

54) For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?
E) about 8 million
Answer: E

55) For a species with a diploid number of 10 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?
C) 32
Answer: C

56) Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of
A) the random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I.
Answer: A

57) When pairs of homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase I,
B) the sister chromatids remain linked to one another.
Answer: B

58) Which of the following statements about crossing over is incorrect?
B) Crossing over plays a role in both sexual and asexual reproduction.
Answer: B

59) What name is given to the process that restores the diploid number of chromosomes?
A) fertilization
Answer: A


60) At the end of ________ and cytokinesis, haploid cells contain chromosomes that each consist of two sister chromatids.
B) telophase I
Answer: B

61) Synapsis occurs during
A) prophase I.
Answer: A

62) Homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during
C) anaphase I.
Answer: C

63) In a cell in which 2n = 6, the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis can by itself give rise to ________ genetically different gametes.
E) eight
Answer: E

64) A human cell containing 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome is
D) a sperm cell.
Answer: D

65) Homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of a dividing cell during
B) meiosis I.
Answer: B

66) Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that
D) sister chromatids separate during anaphase.
Answer: D

67) If the DNA content of a diploid cell in the G1 phase of the cell cycle is x, then the DNA content of the same cell at metaphase of meiosis I would be
D) 2x.
Answer: D

68) If we continued to follow the cell lineage from question 4, then the DNA content at metaphase of meiosis II would be
C) x.
Answer: C

69) How many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be packaged in gametes made by an organism with a diploid number of 8 (2n = 8)?
D) 16
Answer: D

70) The immediate product of meiosis in a plant is a
A) spore.
Answer: A

71) Multicellular haploid organisms
C) produce gametes by mitosis.
Answer: C

72) Crossing over usually contributes to genetic variation by exchanging chromosomal segments between
C) nonsister chromatids of homologues.
Answer: C

73) In comparing the typical life cycles of plants and animals, a stage found in plants but not in animals
is a
D) multicellular haploid.
Answer: D
Definition
A) the complete complement of an organism's genes
Term
2) Which of the following statements about genes is incorrect?
Definition
D) Under normal circumstances, each chromosome contains precisely one gene.
Term
3) Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction are different in that
Definition
A) individuals reproducing asexually transmit 100% of their genes to their progeny, whereas individuals reproducing sexually only transmit 50%.
B) asexual reproduction produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parents, whereas sexual reproduction gives rise to genetically distinct offspring.
C) asexual reproduction involves a single parent, whereas sexual reproduction involves two.
D) asexual reproduction only requires mitosis, whereas sexual reproduction always involves meiosis.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Term
4) How do the two members of a pair of homologous chromosomes differ from each other?
Definition
E) the precise sequence of the DNA within each of the chromosomes
Term
5) What is a karyotype?
Definition
E) a display of every pair of homologous chromosomes within a cell, organized according to size and shape
Term
6) By examining a karyotype, it is possible to determine
Definition
A) which of two related plant forms is a gametophyte, and which is a sporophyte.
B) the sex of an animal.
D) A and B only
Answer: D
Term
7) At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes photographed in the preparation of a karyotype?
Definition
B) metaphase
Term
8) The human X and Y chromosomes are
Definition
D) called "sex chromosomes" because they determine an individual's sex.
Term
9) If the liver cells of an animal have 24 chromosomes, how many chromosomes do its sperm cells have?
Definition
B) 12
Term
10) Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16?
Definition
C) There are 8 homologous pairs.
Term
11) Which of the following is the term for a human cell that contains 22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes?
Definition
D) a female somatic cell
Term
12) Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the following elements, which do all sexual life cycles have in common?
I. alternation of generations
II. meiosis
III. fertilization
IV. gametes
V. spores
C) II, III, and IV
Definition
Answer: C
Term
13) Which of these statements is false?
Definition
D) At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.