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BIO 111 questions
Multiple choice questions from exams 1-4
80
Biology
04/28/2010

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Term
Which of the following is a theme that unifies biology?
A. Interaction with the environment
B. Movement
C. Reductionism
D. Photosynthesis
E. Evolution
Definition
E. Evolution
Term
Evolution occurs at the______ level.
A. Biosystem
B. Community
C. Population
D. Species
Definition
C. Population
Term
Organisms interact with their environments by exchanging matter/energy with it. For example, plants convert the energy of sunlight into
A. The energy of motion
B. Carbon dioxide and water
C. Potential energy in the form of glucose
D. Oxygen and carbon dioxide
E. Kinetic energy
Definition
C. Potential energy in the form of glucose
Term
Which branch of biology is concerned with the naming and classifying of organisms?
A. Systematics
B. Taxonomy
C. Informatics
D. Genomics
Definition
B. Taxonomy
Term
Which of the following provides the best evidence of the common ancestry of all life?
A. Enzymes
B. Universality of the genetic code
C. The presence of a nucleus
D. Photosynthesis
Definition
B. Universality of the genetic code
Term
Which of the following is true about natural selection?
A. Requires genetic diversity
B. Results in differential reproduction in a population
C. Involves descent with modification
D. Decreases genetic diversity over time
E. All of the above
Definition
E. All of the above
Term
Each element is unique and different from other elements based on
A. Atomic mass
B. The number of protons
C. Number of neutrons
D. Place on the periodic table
Definition
B. The number of protons
Term
The atomic mass can be approximated by adding the
A. Number of neutrons and protons
B. Number of neutrons and electrons
C. Number of protons and electrons
D. Number of valance shells and electrons
Definition
A. Number of neutrons and protons
Term
Calcium has an atomic number of 20 and an atomic mass of 40; therefore, calcium must
A. Have 20 protons
B. Have 40 electrons
C. Have 40 neutrons
D. Be an isotope
Definition
A. Have 20 protons
Term
The type of bonds that an element prefers to make are determined by
A. The atomic number
B. The number of valance shells
C. The number of electrons
D. The charge of the atom
Definition
C. The number of electrons
Term
Which four elements are the primary elements in life forms (96%)?
A. Carbon, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen
B. Carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, hydrogen
C. Oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium
D. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
Definition
D. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
Term
In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single atom of oxygen by
A. Hydrogen bonds
B. Polar covalent bonds
C. Ionic bonds
D. Nonpolar covalent bonds
Definition
B. Polar covalent bonds
Term
The slight negative charge of one end of a water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge on another water molecule. What is this attraction called?
A. A covalent bond
B. A hydrogen bond
C. An ionic bond
D. A hydrophobic bond
Definition
B. A hydrogen bond
Term
A carbon atom is most likely to form which of the following?
A. Ionic bond
B. Covalent bond
C. Hydrogen bond
D. Radioactive bond
Definition
B. Covalent bond
Term
Which of the following is not a polymer?
A. Glucose
B. Starch
C. Cellulose
D. DNA
Definition
A. Glucose
Term
Which of the following contain nitrogen?
A. Starch
B. Glycogen
C. Cellulose
D. Amino acids
Definition
D. Amino acids
Term
Carbon refers to bond ______ with other elements.
A. Ionicaly
B. Covalently
C. By hydrogen bond
D. Weakly
Definition
B. Covalently
Term
Which of the following statement(s) concerning lipids are false?
A. They are soluble in water
B. They are used in cell membranes
C. They contain more energy than carbohydrates
D. Examples are waxes and oils
Definition
A. They are soluble in water
Term
Saturated fats contain more _______ than unsaturated.
A. Nitrogen
B. Oxygen
C. Hydrogen
D. Carbon
Definition
C. Hydrogen
Term
All of the following contain amino acids except
A. Hemoglobin
B. Cholesterol
C. Antibodies
D. Enzymes
Definition
B. Cholesterol
Term
What makes one amino acid different from another?
A. The carboxyl group
B. The amino group
C. The hydrogen
D. The R group
Definition
D. The R group
Term
Which bonds are formed in assembling the primary structure of proteins?
A. Peptide bonds
B. Hydrogen bonds
C. Phosphodiester bonds
D. Disulfide bonds
Definition
A. Peptide bonds
Term
The tertiary structure of a protein in the
A. Bonding together of several polypeptide chains by weak bonds
B. The order in which the amino acids are joined
C. Unique three-dimensional shape of the fully-folded peptide
D. Organization of a polypeptide into an alpha helix or pleated sheet
E. Overall protein shape when 2 or more peptides are joined
Definition
C. Unique three-dimensional shape of the fully-folded peptide
Term
Altering which of the following levels of protein structure could change the function?
A. Primary
B. Secondary
C. Tertiary
D. Quaternary
E. All of these
Definition
E. All of these
Term
Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?
A. a nitrogenous base, phosphate group
B. a nitrogenous base, pentose sugar
C. a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group and a pentose sugar
D. a phosphate group, pentose sugar
Definition
C. a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group and a pentose sugar
Term
Which of the following represents the flow of information in cells?
A. DNA to protein to RNA
B. DNA to RNA to protein
C. Proteins to DNA to RNA
D. RNA to DNA to proteins
Definition
B. DNA to RNA to protein
Term
The function of DNA is to
A. Produce protein
B. Store genetic information
C. Transform RNA
D. Direct catalytic activities
Definition
B. Store genetic information
Term
Which molecule has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties?
A. Cholesterol
B. Triglycerides
C. Phospholipids
D. Glucose
Definition
C. Phospholipids
Term
Enzymes are examples of
A. Carbohydrates
B. Lipids
C. Proteins
D. Nucleic acids
Definition
C. Proteins
Term
Which of the following is/are not found in a prokaryotic cell?
A. Ribosomes
B. Plasma membrane
C. Mitochondria
D. A and C
E. A, B, and C
Definition
C. Mitochondria
Term
Resolution of a microscope is
A. The distance between two separate points
B. The sharpness or clarity of an image
C. The degree of magnification of an image
D. The depth of focus on a specimen’s surface
E. The wavelength of light
Definition
B. The sharpness or clarity of an image
Term
Which of the following if NOT a similarity among the nucleus, chloroplasts, and mitochondria?
A. They contain DNA
B. They are bounded by two phospholipid bilayer membranes
C. They can divide to reproduce themselves
D. They are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum system
E. The membranes are associated with specific proteins
Definition
D. They are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum system
Term
The pores in the nuclear envelope provide for the movement of
A. Proteins into the nucleus
B. Ribosomal subunits out of the nucleus
C. mRNA out of the nucleus
D. signal molecules into the nucleus
E. all of the above
Definition
E. all of the above
Term
The ultrastructure of a chloroplast could be seen with the best resolution using
A. transmission electron microscopy
B. scanning electron microscopy
C. phase-contrast light microscopy
D. cell fractionation
E. fluorescence microscopy
Definition
A. transmission electron microscopy
Term
Which of the following is INCORRECTLY paired with its function?
A. Peroxisome – contains enzymes that break down H2O2
B. Nucleolus – produces ribosomal RNA, assembles ribosome subunits
C. Golgi apparatus – processes, tags, and ships cellular products
D. Lysosome – food sac formed by phagocytosis
E. ECM (extracellular matrix) – supports and anchors cells, communicated information with inside of cell
Definition
D. Lysosome – food sac formed by phagocytosis
Term
The cells of an ant and an elephant are, on average, the same size; an elephant just has more cells. What is the main advantage of small cell size?
A. Small cells are easier to organize into tissues and organs
B. A small cell has a larger plasma membrane surface area than does a large sell, facilitating the exchange of sufficient materials with its environment
C. A small cell has a smaller cytoplasmic volume relative to its surface area, which helps to ensure the exchange of sufficient materials across its plasma membrane
D. Small cells require less oxygen than do large cells
E. The cytoskeleton of a large cell would have to be so large that cells would be too heavy
Definition
C. A small cell has a smaller cytoplasmic volume relative to its surface area, which helps to ensure the exchange of sufficient materials across its plasma membrane
Term
A growing plant cell elongates primarily by
A. Increasing the number of vacuoles
B. Synthesizing more cytoplasm
C. Taking up water into its central vacuole
D. Synthesizing more cellulose
E. Producing a secondary cell wall
Definition
C. Taking up water into its central vacuole
Term
The innermost portion of the cell wall of a plant cell specialized for support is the
A. Primary cell wall
B. Secondary cell wall
C. Middle lamella
D. Plasma membrane
E. Plasmodesmata
Definition
B. Secondary cell wall
Term
Contractile elements of muscle cells are
A. Intermediate filaments
B. Centrioles
C. Microtubules
D. Actin filaments (microfilaments)
E. Fibronectins
Definition
D. Actin filaments (microfilaments)
Term
Microtubules are components of all of the following EXCEPT
A. Centrioles
B. The spindle apparatus for the separating chromosomes in cell division
C. Tracks along which organelles can move using motor molecules
D. Flagella and cilia
E. The cleavage furrow that pinches apart cells in animal cell division
Definition
E. The cleavage furrow that pinches apart cells in animal cell division
Term
Of the following, which is probably the most common route for membrane flow in the endomembrane system?
A. Rough ER Golgi lysosomes nuclear membrane plasma membrane
B. Rough ER transport vesicles Golgi vesicles plasma membrane
C. Nuclear envelope rough ER Golgi smooth ER lysosomes
D. Rough ER vesicles Golgi smoothe ER plasma membrane
E. Smooth ER vesicles Golgi vesicles peroxisomes
Definition
B. Rough ER transport vesicles Golgi vesicles plasma membrane
Term
Proteins to be used within the cytosol are generally synthesized
A. By ribosomes bound to rough ER
B. By free ribosomes
C. By the nucleolus
D. Within the Golgi apparatus
E. By mitochondria and cholorplast
Definition
B. By free ribosomes
Term
Plasmodesmata in plant cells are similar in function to
A. Desmosomes
B. Tight junctions
C. Gap junctions
D. The extracellular matrix
E. Integrins
Definition
C. Gap junctions
Term
In an animal cell fractionation procedure, the first pellet formed would most likely contain
A. The extracellular matrix
B. Ribosomes
C. Mitochondria
D. Lysosomes
E. Nuclei
Definition
E. Nuclei
Term
Glycoproteins and glycolipids are important for
A. Facilitated diffusion
B. Active transport
C. Cell-cell recognition
D. Cotransport
E. Signal-transduction pathways
Definition
C. Cell-cell recognition
Term
A single layer of phospholipid molecules coats the water in a beaker. Which part of the molecules will face the air?
A. The phosphate groups
B. The hydrocarbon tails
C. Bothe head and tail because the molecules are amphipathic and will lie sideways
D. The glycolipid regions
E. The phospholipids would dissolve in the water and not form a membrane coat
Definition
B. The hydrocarbon tails
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about osmosis?
A. It is a passive process in cells without walls, but an active one in cells with walls.
B. Water moves from a hypotonic to hypertonic solution
C. Solute molecules bind to water and decrease the water available to move
D. It can occur more rapidly through channel proteins known as aquaporins
E. There is no net osmosis between isotonic solutions
Definition
A. It is a passive process in cells without walls, but an active one in cells with walls.
Term
Support for the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure comes from
A. The freeze-fracture technique of electron microscopy
B. The movement of proteins in hybrid cells
C. The amphipathic nature of many membrane proteins
D. Both A and C
E. All of the above
Definition
E. All of the above
Term
Facilitated diffusion of ions across a cellular membrane requires ______, and the ions move _______.
A. Energy and transport proteins . . . against their electrochemical gradient
B. Energy and transport proteins . . . against their concentration gradient
C. Cotransport proteins . . . against their electrochemical gradient
D. Transport proteins . . . down their electrochemical gradient
E. Transport proteins . . . down their concentration gradient
Definition
E. Transport proteins . . . down their concentration gradient
Term
Which of the following is the most probable description of an integral, transmembrane protein?
A. Amphipathic with a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail region
B. A globular protein with hydrophobic amino acids in the interior and hydrophilic amino acids arranged around the outside
C. A fibrous protein coated with hydrophobic fatty acids
D. A glycolipid attached to the portion of the protein facing the exterior of the cell and cytoskeletal elements attached to the portion facind inside the cell
E. A middle region composed of A helical starches of hydrophobic amino acids, with hydrophilic regions at both ends of the protein
Definition
E. A middle region composed of A helical starches of hydrophobic amino acids, with hydrophilic regions at both ends of the protein
Term
The fluidity of membranes in a plant in cold weather may be maintained by increasing the
A. Number of phospholipids with saturated hydrocarbon tails
B. Action of an H+ pump
C. Concentration of cholesterol in the membrane
D. Proportion of peripheral proteins
E. Number of phospholipids with unsaturated hydrocarbon tails
Definition
E. Number of phospholipids with unsaturated hydrocarbon tails
Term
An animal cell placed in a hypotonic environment will
A. Plasmolyze
B. Shrivel
C. Become turgid
D. Become flaccid
E. Burst (lyse)
Definition
E. Burst (lyse)
Term
Which of the following is NOT true of carrier molecules involved in facilitated diffusion?
A. They increase the speed of transport across a membrane
B. The can concentrate solute molecules on one side of the membrane
C. They may have specific binding sites for the molecules they transport
D. The may undergo a change in shape upon binding of solute
E. They do not require an energy investment from the cell to operate
Definition
B. The can concentrate solute molecules on one side of the membrane
Term
The membrane potential of a cell favors
A. The movement of cations into the cell
B. The movement of anions into the cell
C. The action of an electrogenic pump
D. The movement of sodium out of the cell
E. Both B and D
Definition
A. The movement of cations into the cell
Term
Cotransport may involve
A. Active transport of two solutes through a transport protein
B. Passive transport of two solutes through a transport protein
C. Ion diffusion against the electrochemical gradient created by an electrogenic pump
D. A pump such as the sodium-potassium pump that moves ions in two different directions
E. Transport of one solute against its concentration gradient in tandem with another that is diffusing down its concentration gradient
Definition
E. Transport of one solute against its concentration gradient in tandem with another that is diffusing down its concentration gradient
Term
Exocytosis may involve all of the following EXCEPT
A. Ligands and coated pits
B. The fusion of a vesicle with the plasma membrane
C. A mechanism to export some carbohydrates during the formation of plant cell walls
D. A mechanism to rejuvenate the plasma membrane
E. A means of exporting large molecules
Definition
A. Ligands and coated pits
Term
The proton pump in plant cells is the functional equivalent of an animal cell’s
A. Cotransport mechanism
B. Sodium-potassium pump
C. Contractile vacuole for osmoregulation
D. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of cholesterol
E. ATP pump
Definition
B. Sodium-potassium pump
Term
Pinocytosis involves
A. The fusion of a newly formed food vacuole with a lysosome
B. Receptor-mediated endocytosis that involves binding of a ligand
C. The pinching in of the plasma membrane around small droplets of external fluid
D. The secretion of cell fluid
E. The accumulation of specific molecules in a cell
Definition
C. The pinching in of the plasma membrane around small droplets of external fluid
Term
Watering a houseplant with too concentrated a solution of fertilizer can result in wilting because
A. The uptake of ions into plant cells makes the cells hypertonic
B. The soil solution becomes hypertonic, causing the cells to lose water
C. The plant will grow faster than it can transport water and maintain proper water balance
D. Diffusion down the electrochemical gradient will cause a disruption of membrane potential and accompanying loss of water
E. The plant will suffer fertilizer burn due to a caustic soil solution
Definition
B. The soil solution becomes hypertonic, causing the cells to lose water
Term
A cell is manufacturing receptor proteins for cholesterol. How would those proteins be oriented in the following membranes before they reach the plasma membrane?
A. Facing inside the ER lumen but outside the transport vesicle membrane
B. Facing inside the ER lumen and inside the transport vesicle
C. Attached outside the ER and outside the transport vesicle
D. Attached outside the ER but facing inside the transport vesicle
E. Embedded in the hydrophobic center of both the ER and transport vesicle membranes
Definition
B. Facing inside the ER lumen and inside the transport vesicle
Term
You observe plant cells under a microscope as they are placed in unknown solution. First, the cells plasmolyze; after a minute, the plasmolysis reverses and the cells appear normal. What would you conclude about the unknown solution?
A. It is hypertonic to the plant cells, and its solute cannot cross the plant cell membranes
B. It is hypotonic to the plant cells, and its solute cannot cross the plant cell membranes
C. It is isotonic to the plant cells, but its solute can cross the plant cell membranes
D. It is hypertonic to the plant cells, but its solute can cross the plant cell membranes
E. It is hypotonic to the plant cells, but its solute can cross the plant cell membranes
Definition
D. It is hypertonic to the plant cells, but its solute can cross the plant cell membranes
Term
According to the first law of thermodynamics,
A. Matter can be neither created nor destroyed
B. Energy is neither created nor destroyed
C. All processes increase the entropy of the universe
D. Systems rich in energy are intrinsically unstable
E. The universe looses energy because of friction
Definition
B. Energy is neither created nor destroyed
Term
Whenever energy is transformed, there is always an increase in the
A. Free energy of the system
B. Free energy of the universe
C. Entropy of the system
D. Enthalpy of the universe
Definition
C. Entropy of the system
Term
According to the second law of thermodynamics, all of the following statements are true except that
A. The synthesis of large molecules from small molecules is exergonic
B. The Earth is an open system
C. Life exits at the expense of greater energy than it contains
D. Every chemical transformed represents a loss of free energy
Definition
A. The synthesis of large molecules from small molecules is exergonic
Term
Why is ATP an important molecule in metabolism?
A. It energizes other molecules by transferring phosphate groups
B. Its phosphate bonds are easily broken
C. Breakdown of its phosphate groups is exergonic
D. All of the above
Definition
D. All of the above
Term
Which of the following statements regarding enzymes if true?
A. Enzymes decrease the rate of a reaction
B. Enzymes increase the rate of reaction
C. Enzymes change the direction of chemical reactions
D. Enzymes are permanently altered by the reactions they catalyze
E. Enzymes prevent changes in substrate concentrations
Definition
B. Enzymes increase the rate of reaction
Term
The active site of an enzyme is the region that
A. Binds with the allosteric site
B. Binds with the substrate
C. Binds with allosteric inhibitors
D. Is inhibited by a coenzyme or a cofactor
Definition
B. Binds with the substrate
Term
Which of the following statements concerning the breakdown of glucose to CO2 and water is (are) true?
A. The breakdown of glucose is exergonic
B. Adding electrons to another substance is known as reduction
C. An electron acceptor is called the reducing agent
D. A, B, and C are correct
Definition
D. A, B, and C are correct
Term
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is directly involved in
A. Glycolysis
B. Accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
C. The citric acid cycle
D. The oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
Definition
B. Accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
Term
Which process in eukaryotic cells will normally proceed whether O2 is present or absent?
A. Electron transport
B. Glycolysis
C. The Krebs cycle
D. Oxidative Phosphorylation
E. Fermentation
Definition
B. Glycolysis
Term
In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
A. CO2 and H2O
B. CO2 and ethyl alcohol
C. NADH and pyruvate
D. CO2 and NADPH
E. H2O and ethyl alcohol
Definition
C. NADH and pyruvate
Term
Cellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from which process?
A. Chemiosmosis
B. Forming lactate from pyruvate
C. Converting oxygen to ATP
D. Transferring electrons from organic molecules to oxygen
E. Generating carbon dioxide and oxygen in the electron transport chain
Definition
A. Chemiosmosis
Term
The primary function of the mitochondrion is the production of ATP. To carry out this function, the mitochondrion must have all of the following except
A. The membrane-bound electron transport chain
B. Proton pumps embedded in the inner membrane
C. Enzymes for glycolysis
D. Enzymes for the Krebs cycle
E. Mitochondrial ATP synthase
Definition
C. Enzymes for glycolysis
Term
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
A. CO2 and glucose
B. H2O and O2
C. ADP, P, and NADP+
D. Electrons and H+
E. ATP and NADPH
Definition
E. ATP and NADPH
Term
A new flower species has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are not being absorbed by this pigment?
A. Red and yellow
B. Blue and violet
C. Green and yellow
D. Blue, green, and red
E. Green, blue, and violet
Definition
A. Red and yellow
Term
The color of light least effective in driving photosynthesis is
A. Blue
B. Red
C. Orange
D. Green
E. Yellow
Definition
D. Green
Term
Which of the following statements regarding events in the functioning of photosystem II is false?
A. Light energy excites pigments in a PS II
B. The excitation is passed along to a molecule of P680 chlorophyll
C. The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+
D. The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water
E. The splitting of water yields molecular oxygen as a by-product
Definition
C. The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+
Term
The Calvin cycle requires all of the following except
A. CO2
B. ATP
C. RuBP
D. Glucose
E. NADPH
Definition
D. Glucose
Term
In green plants, the primary function of the Calvin cycle is to
A. Use ATP to release carbon dioxide
B. Use NADPH to release carbon dioxide
C. Split water and release oxygen
D. Transport RuBP out of the chloroplast
E. Construct simple sugars from carbon dioxide
Definition
E. Construct simple sugars from carbon dioxide
Term
Where does the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis take place?
A. Stroma of the chloroplast
B. Thylakoid membrane
C. Cytoplasm surrounding the chloroplast
D. Chlorophyll molecule
E. Outer membrane of the chloroplast
Definition
A. Stroma of the chloroplast