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Behavior Therapy Test 2
Behavior Therapy Test 2
235
Psychology
03/25/2007

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Term
prompting
Definition
gives cues that remind or instruct a person to perform a behavior
Term
the 4 types of prompts:
Definition
verbal

environmental

physical

behavioral

Term
verbal prompts
Definition
involve telling clients what they are expected to do
Term
verbal prompts are often used together with...
Definition
modeling and reinforcement
Term
environmental prompts
Definition
cues in the environment, such as signs, that remind clients to perform behaviors
Term
physical prompts
Definition
someone physically directs a client to perform a behavior
Term
physical prompts are used extensively to...
Definition
teach self-care skills to individuals with developmental disabilities
Term
behavioral prompts
Definition
one behavior cues another
Term
5 guidelines for administering prompts
Definition
1.) administer a prompt just before it is appropriate to perform the target behavior

2.) make the prompt noticeable to the client

3.) make a prompt specific

4.) have the prompt remind clients about the consequences of engaging in the desired behavior (ex: a sign saying "taking your medication will make you feel better.")

5.) follow up prompts with positive reinforcement for engaging in the prompted behavior

Term
fading
Definition
the process of gradually withdrawing prompts as the prompted behavior is performed more frequently
Term
setting events
Definition
broad and sometimes complex conditions in the immediate environment that influence the likelihood that certain behaviors will be performed
Term
modifying setting events is generally employed with (children / adults)
Definition
children
Term
planned activity scheduling
Definition
behavior change agents arrange for clients to engage in active desirable behaviors in situations likely to elicit problem behaviors, which reduces opportunities for misbehavior.
Term
planned activity therapy is generally employed with (children/adults)
Definition
children
Term
reinforcement
Definition
occurs when the consequences of a behavior increase the likelihood that the person will repeat the behavior
Term
reinforcer
Definition
given to person when they engage in a behavior
Term
rewards
Definition
pleasant consequences of a behavior that do not necessarily make it more likely that the person will perform the behavior again
Term
positive reinforcement
Definition
when a pleasant event is presented as a consequence of a person's performing a behavior

increases the frequency of a behavior

Term
positive reinforcer
Definition
the consequence of positive reinforcement
Term
negative reinforcement
Definition
an unpleasant event is removed as a consequence of a person's performing a behavior

increases the frequency of a behavior

Term
negative reinforcer
Definition
the consequence of negative reinforcement
Term
4 categories of positive reinforcers
Definition
tangible reinforcers

social reinforcers

token reinforcers

reinforcing activities

Term
tangible reinforcers
Definition
material objects

ex: food, clothes, cds, jewelry

Term
social reinforcers
Definition
consist of attention, praise, and acknowledgement
Term
four advantages of social reinforcers
Definition
1.) easy to administer

2.) don't cost anything

3.) can be administered immediately

4.) social reinforcers are natural reinforcers

Term
natural reinforcers
Definition
consequences that people receive as a regular part of their daily lives
Term
using social reinforcers during therapy increases the changes that the target behavior will be maintained after therapy because...
Definition
the reinforcers will continue to be available.
Term
token reinforcers
Definition
symbolic items that have value because of what they can be exchanged for

ex: money

Term
reinforcing activities
Definition
engaging in pleasurable activities that are used as positive reinforcement
Term
Premack principle
Definition
high probability behaviors can serve as reinforcers for lower probability behaviors
Term
David Premack
Definition
created the Premack principle
Term
3 ways in which behavior therapists identify potential reinforcers
Definition
1.) directly questioning the client

2.) selecting from generalized reinforcers

3.) observing the clients' routine behaviors

Term
limitations of directly questioning clients about potential reinforcers
Definition
it does not work for clients with severely limited intellectual and verbal abilities

depressed clients cannot think of reinforcers because nothing seems pleasant or worthwhile to them

Term
generalized reinforcers
Definition
consequences that are reinforcing for many people

ex: food, money, social attention

Term
reinforcer sampling
Definition
a procedure in which clients are first given a generalized reinforcer without having to do anything to obtain it.

once the client begins to enjoy the reinforcer, they are required to perform the target behavior to obtain the reinforcer again

Term
reinforcing agents
Definition
individuals who dispense reinforcers to a client

ex: therapists, parents, teachers, peers

Term
self reinforcement
Definition
clients reinforcing their own behaviors
Term
advantages of self reinforcement
Definition
1.) the reinforcing agent is always present and can reinforce themselves immediately

2.) can increase transfer, generalization, and long-term maintainence

Term
limitation of self reinforcement
Definition
clients may be less reliable in administering reinforcers than are other people who are charged with that task
Term
continuous reinforcement schedule
Definition
a behavior is reinforced every time a person engages in it
Term
intermittent reinforcement schedule
Definition
only some of the occurrences of the target behavior are reinforced
Term
interval schedule
Definition
intermittent schedule based on a specific interval of time

ex: every five minutes

Term
ratio schedule
Definition
when the schedule is based on the number of times the behavior must be performed for it to be reinforced

ex: every five times a behavior is performed

Term
individual contingencies
Definition
the consequences a person receives depend only on his or her own behavior
Term
group contingency
Definition
all members of a group receive the same consequences, depending on the performance of the group
Term
7 guidelines for administering reinforcers and fostering maintenance
Definition
1.) reinforcers should be contingent on the client's performing the target behavior.

2.) the reinforcer should be administered immediately after the client performs the target behavior.

3.) reinforcers should be administered consistently.

4.) the client should be made aware that the reinforcer is a consequence of the target behavior.

5.) continuous reinforcement should be used initially, followed by intermittent reinforcement.

6.) natural reinforcers should be used in therapy.

7.) reinforcers should be kept potent.

Term
the reinforcer should be administered immediately after the client performs the target behavior BECAUSE...
Definition
immediate reinforcement is more effective than delayed reinforcement
Term
reinforcers can lose their potency when used too much because...
Definition
clients can become satiated on them. conversely, the more a client is deprived of a specific reinforcer, the greater is that reinforcer's potency.
Term
4 procedures for maintaining the potency of a reinforcer
Definition
1.) using reinforcers which clients have not had access to recently

2.) dispensing reinforcersin small amounts

3.) switching reinforcers periodically

4.) using reinforcers that are less likely to lead to satiation (ex: praise rather than food)

Term
shaping
Definition
the components of a target behavior are reinforced rather than the complete target behavior
Term
3 keys to the effective application of reinforcement
Definition
1.) consistently administering potent reinforcers, which have been 2.) specifically identified for the client, 3.) immediately following the behavior.
Term
4 procedures used to promote transfer, generalization, and long-term maintenance
Definition
1.) using natural reinforcers

2.) using self-reinforcement

3.) reinforcing the target behavior in the client's natural environment by natural reinforcing agents

4.) administering reinforcers intermittently

Term
criticisms of reinforcement
Definition
1.) clients should perform socially desirable behaviors without having to be reinforced b/c of wanting the natural consequences

2.) reinforcement deprives the client to act however they wish

3.) reinforcement can be seen as bribery

Term
how is reinforcement different than bribery?
Definition
1.) bribery is usually done dishonestly or illegally

2.) bribes are given BEFORE the behavior is performed, whereas reinforcers are always given AFTER the behavior occurs

Term
differential reinforcement
Definition
the preferred strategy for decelerating an undesirable behavior is to reinforce an acceleration target behavior that is an alternative to the deceleration target behavior
Term
differential reinforcement works because...
Definition
the more the client engages in the alternative behavior, the less opportunity the client has to engage in the deceleration target behavior.
Term
4 strategies of differential reinforcement (from most to least desirable)
Definition
1.) incompatible behaviors
2.) competing behaviors
3.) any other behaviors 4.) lowered frequency of the undesirable behavior
Term
differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors
Definition
when a person is performing the acceleration target behavior, it is impossible for the person to perform the deceleration behavior.
Term
differential reinforcement of competing behaviors
Definition
engaging in a competing acceleration target behavior reduces, but does not eliminate, the opportunity to engage simultaneously in the undesirable behavior.
Term
differential reinforcement of other behaviors
Definition
if a target behavior is seriously maladaptive, it may be necessary to reinforce ANY OTHER behavior to decrease the maladaptive behavior quickly
Term
differential reinforcement of low response rates
Definition
used only when the rate of performing the behavior is very high
Term
noncontingent reinforcement
Definition
the reinforcer identified as maintaining a problem behavior is administered on a frequent fixed-interval schedule (ex: every 15 seconds) regardless of whether the client engages in the deceleration behavior.
Term
noncontingent reinforcement is used as a treatment for..
Definition
serious maladaptive behaviors
Term
functional communication training
Definition
teaches clients to use acceptable ways of communicating the desire for a reinforcer as an alternative to their unacceptable means of communicating
Term
steps in functional communication training
Definition
1.) identify the reinforcer maintaining the problem behavior

2.) the client is taught to use an appropriate communication behavior that will result in the client obtaining the reinforcer

3.) the alternative ways of communication are reinforced and the reinforcement is withheld when negative behavior occurs

Term
3 reasons why differential reinforcement may not reduce the undesirable behavior sufficiently
Definition
1.) it is difficult to find a suitable acceleration target behavior

2.) increasing the acceleration target behavior may only partially decrease the maladaptive target behavior

3.) differential reinforcement typically decreases the deceleration behavior gradually

Term
2 forms of deceleration behavior therapy used to reduce undesirable behaviors directly
Definition
1.) consequential deceleration therapy

2.) aversion therapy

Term
consequential deceleration therapy
Definition
changes the consequences of the maladaptive target behavior

either eliminates reinforcement of behavior or makes the consequences undesirable

Term
aversion therapy
Definition
associates the maladaptive target behavior with something unpleasant
Term
extinction
Definition
when the reinforcers maintaining a behavior are no longer administered, the person eventually stops performing the behavior
Term
ignoring is only extinction when...
Definition
social attention in maintaining the deceleration target behavior
Term
4 problems w/ extinction
Definition
1.) sometimes it works slowly

2.) in 1 of 4 cases, an extinction burst occurs (when an initial intensification occurs before it decreases)

3.) the extinction effects may not transfer to other circumstances

4.) spontaneous recovery (target behavior may recur temporarily after it is eliminated)

Term
spontaneous recovery (is/ isn't) an indication that extinction has been ineffective
Definition
is not
Term
2 limitations to extinction
Definition
1.) the reinforcer maintaining the target behavior can't always be identified

2.) for extinction to be effective, the reinforcer must be COMPLETELY withheld

Term
time out from positive reinforcement
Definition
temporarily withdrawing a clients access to generalized reinforcers after the client performs the deceleration target behavior
Term
6 conditions for an effective time out
Definition
1.) the client should be aware of why they have a time out and its duration

2.) the duration should be brief

3.) no reinforcers should be present

4.) time out should end only when the duration has elapsed

5.) time out should end only when the child behaves

6.) time out shouldn't allow clients to avoid unpleasant situations, like chores

Term
3 therapies that introduce undesirable consequence
Definition
1.) response cost

2.) overcorrection

3.) physically aversive consequences

Term
response cost
Definition
the removal of a valued item the client possesses
Term
who developed a response cost procedure?
Definition
Ogden Lindsley
Term
overcorrection
Definition
decelerates bad behavior by having clients correct the effects of their actions and then intensively practice an appropriate alternative behavior
Term
who developed overcorrection?
Definition
Richard Foxx and Nathan Azrin
Term
2 phases of overcorrection
Definition
1.) restitution - the client makes amends for the damage done

2.) positive practice - the client performs an appropriate behavior in an exaggerated fashion (usually repeatedly)

Term
theft reversal
Definition
the offender returns stolen items and also buys a similar item for the victim
Term
2 issues with overcorrection
Definition
1.) it can be effective when it is delayed

2.) increasing the duration of positive practice is not necessary

Term
physically aversive consequences
Definition
stimuli that result in unpleasant physical sensations (ex: pain)
Term
when is physically aversive consequences used?
Definition
when rapid deceleration of a maladaptive behavior is required
Term
Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS)
Definition
a device that a client wears which shocks them when they hit themselves
Term
avoidance behaviors
Definition
clients develop negative associations toward the therapy situation and aviod it
Term
emotional responses
Definition
crying or becoming physically aggressive during deceleration procedures
Term
perpetuation effects
Definition
clients are more likely to behave aggressively
Term
7 guidelines for the effective use of consequential deceleration therapy
Definition
1.) the consequence should occur immediately after the target behavior

2.) the consequence should occur each time the target behavior occurs

3.) the client should be made aware of the target behavior being punished

4.) reinforcement should not closely follow delivery of the consequence

5.) the consequence should be preceded by a warning cue

6.) an adaptive behavior that competes with the undesirable target behavior should be reinforced while decelerating the bad behavior

7.) if physically aversive consequences are employed, their negative side effects should be minimized

Term
aversion therapy
Definition
an aversive stimulus is introduced WHILE the client is engaging in the bad behavior
Term
who determines the strength of the aversive stimulus?
Definition
the client
Term
3 ways the aversive stimulus is associated with the target behavior
Definition
1.) actually engaging in the target behavior

2.) symbolically exposed to the target behavior

3.) imagining performing the target behavior

Term
booster treatments
Definition
re-exposing the client to the target behavior and the aversive stimulus keep the association "active"
Term
covert sensitization
Definition
the therapist verbally describes both the client's engaging in the deceleration behavior and the paired aversive stimulus
Term
4 advantages of covert sensitization
Definition
1.) no equipment is needed

2.) no medical supervision needed

3.) with aversive images, clients can self-administer in vivo

4.) clients may consider it more acceptable

Term
developer of covert sensitization
Definition
Joseph Cautela
Term
principle of utility
Definition
an action is morally right if, when compared with alternative actions, it produces more benefit than harm
Term
ethical guidelines for the use of aversive procedures
Definition
1.) only used if alternatives are not possible

2.) when possible, should not be physically aversive

3.) if physically aversive procedures are used a physician should be consulted

4.) informed consent (the legal guardian must know)

5.) procedures must be used only by a competent professional

6.) should be used simultaneously with accelerating alternative behaviors

7.) measures of the target behavior should be made to document effectiveness of treatment

Term
token economy
Definition
clients earn tokens for adaptive behaviors and lose tokens for maladaptive behaviors
Term
backup reinforcers
Definition
the actual reinforcers clients exchange tokens for
Term
Joseph Lancaster
Definition
19th century - set up an elaborate token reinforcement system to motivate students' learning
Term
4 basic elements of token economy
Definition
1.) a list of accel. & decel. behaviors and the number of tokens that clients can earn/lose for performing each

2.) a list of backup reinforcers and the token cost of each

3.) the type of token

4.) specific procedures and rules for the operation of the token economy

Term
The Community Training Center was developed by...
Definition
Michael Spiegler & Haig Agigian
Term
The Community Training Center
Definition
Set up for individuals recovering from chronic psychiatric disorders

to motivate trainees to develop living skills, a credit system was set up

Term
4 principles for administering credits
Definition
1.) the criteria for earning credits were clearly defined

2.) the staff made trainees aware of the criteria

3.) staff awarded credits ASAP after a target behavior was performed

4.) the program paired earning credits with social reinforcers

Term
the major function of the credit system
Definition
accelerate adaptive behaviors by reinforcement

trainees maladaptive behaviors were treated primarily by reinforcing competing adaptive behaviors

Term
Achievement Place was established by..
Definition
Elery Phillips, Montrose Wolf, and Dean Fixsen
Term
Achievement Place
Definition
juveniles in trouble w. the law earned points for appropriate social behaviors and lost points for poor behaviors
Term
daily system to a weekly system
Definition
at first, boys could exchange points each day for backup reinforcers. once they were familiar with the system, points they earned could be exchanged once a week
Term
merit system
Definition
the final system in the Achievement Place

no point system for backup reinforcers

teaching parents praise children for appropriate behaviors

Term
long-term effectiveness of teaching family programs
Definition
after a year, boys revert to old behaviors
Term
3 strategies to treat classroom conduct problems
Definition
1.) earning tokens for engaging in competing acceleration target behaviors

2.) losing tokens for performing inappropriate behaviors

3.) both earning and losing tokens

Term
the ultimate purpose of decreasing disruptive classroom behaviors is to...
Definition
enhance students' academic performance
Term
a major limitation of token economies is...
Definition
the rapid loss of treatment gains when token reinforcement is discontinued
Term
contingency contract
Definition
a written agreement that specifies the relationship between target behaviors and their consequences for a client
Term
the 3 essential components of a contingency contract
Definition
1.) clear statements of the target behaviors

2.) the consequences of performing (or not performing) them

3.) the precise contingency b/w each target behavior and its consequences

Term
why was it found that traditional psychotherapy on children was ineffective?
Definition
it was not that the problems resided within the child, but with the parent-child interactions.
Term
4 things parents did when experiencing difficulty with their children
Definition
1.) give vague instructions

2.) use negative or threatening warnings to modify childrens behavior

3.) administer inconsistent consequences

4.) provide fewer positive consequences for good behaviors

Term
two developers of Behavioral child management training
Definition
Gerald Patterson and Rex Forehand
Term
behavioral child management training
Definition
teaches parents behavior therapy procedures to manage their children's behavioral problems effectively
Term
3 primary goals of behavioral child management training
Definition
increase parents use of:

1.)clear direct instructions for children

2.) positive consequences for good behavior

3.) negative consequences for disruptive behavior

Term
exposure therapies
Definition
used to treat anxiety and fear by exposing clients to events that create the negative emotion
Term
anxiety is inappropriate when...
Definition
its intensity is disproportionate to the actual situation and when it interferes with normal functioning
Term
how common are anxiety-related disorders?
Definition
they are the most prevalent psychological problem in the US
Term
brief/graduated exposure therapy exposes the client to a threatening event...
Definition
1.) for a short period (few sec - few min), and

2.) incrementally, beginning with aspects that produce minimal anxiety and progressing to more anxiety-provoking aspects

Term
prolonged/intense exposure therapy exposes the client to the threatening event...
Definition
1.) for a lengthy period (10 min - 1 hr), and

2.) from the outset, exposed to events that provoke intense anxiety

Term
The mode of exposure continuum from extreme to mild
Definition
in vivo, virtual reality, verbal/visual depictions, imaginal exposure
Term
competing response
Definition
during exposure, the client engages in a behavior that competes w/ anxiety (ie: relaxing muscles)
Term
response prevention
Definition
during treatment, the client is kept from avoiding the situation that produces anxiety
Term
exaggerated scenes
Definition
to heighten intensity of imaginal exposure, the depiction of the event may be exaggerated (ie: you're covered with 100's of snakes)
Term
what was the 1st major behavior therapy and who developed it?
Definition
systematic desensitization; Joseph Wolpe
Term
systematic desensitization
Definition
the client imagines succesively more anxiety-arousing situations while engaging in a behavior that competes w/ anxiety
Term
3 steps of systematic desensitization
Definition
1.) therapist teaches the client a response that competes w/ anxiety

2.) the events that cause anxiety are ordered by amt. of anxiety they cause

3.) the client repeatedly visualizes the anxiety-evoking events, in order of increasing anxiety, while performing the competing response

Term
progressive relaxation
Definition
involves relaxing various skeletal muscle groups
Term
anxiety hierarchy
Definition
a list of events that elicit anxiety, ordered by increasing levels of anxiety
Term
fear survey schedule
Definition
a self-report inventory which provides a list of stimuli that elicit anxiety in many adults
Term
Subjective Units of Discomfort scale (SUDs)
Definition
anxiety-provoking events are rated on this scale, from 0-100. 0=no anxiety, 100=most anxiety. This is a subjective scale
Term
anxiety hierarchy details
Definition
-often made up of events that share a common theme (fear of evaluation = public speaking, being interviewed, etc)

-a. h.'s are individualized for each client

Term
3 major components of systematic desensitization
Definition
1.) repeated safe exposure to anxiety-evoking situations

2.) in a gradual manner

3.) while engaging in a competing response.

Term
the essential component in systematic desensitization is...
Definition
repeated exposure to anxiety-evoking situations without the client experiencing any negative consequences.
Term
emotive imagery
Definition
employs pleasant thoughts to counter anxiety and often is used with children
Term
group hierarchy
Definition
used during group systematic desensitization, when the clients share a common problem
Term
who developed coping desensitization?
Definition
Marvin Goldfried
Term
coping desensitization
Definition
the bodily sensations of anxiety are replaced with a coping response.
Term
anxiety management training was developed by...
Definition
Richard Suinn and Frank Richardson
Term
anxiety management training was developed by...
Definition
Richard Suinn and Frank Richardson
Term
David Barlow developed...
Definition
interoceptive exposure
Term
interoceptive exposure
Definition
used to treat panic attacks.

clients enduce bodily sensations they would feel during a panic attack and consciously view the feelings as less threatening. breathing retrainging (deep breathing) is used.

Term
3 ways systematic desensitization is efficient
Definition
1.) exposure in imagination is less time consuming than in vivo exposure

2.) requires relatively short amt. of times

3.) can be used in groups

Term
in vivo exposure therapy
Definition
systematic desensitization where the client is exposed to tehe actual feared event
Term
differential relaxation
Definition
relaxing muscles that aren't used while in vivo
Term
therapist-directed exposure
Definition
the therapist is present to guide the patient through the exposure
Term
self-managed exposure
Definition
patient engages in exposure procedures on his own
Term
3 advantages of in vivo over systematic desensitization
Definition
1.) effective for clients who have trouble imagining scenes

2.) avoidance behaviors can be monitored directly

3.) since therapy is directly in the anxiety-evoking situation, there is no need for transfer

Term
3 limitations of in vivo exposure
Definition
1.) considerable therapist time is required

2.) not feasible with certain events (ie: fear of earthquakes)

3.) some clients can't handle being in the situation

Term
Barbara Rothbaum and Larry Hodges began...
Definition
exposure therapy through virtual reality
Term
anxiety-induction therapies
Definition
aka prolonged/intense exposure therapies

these therapies fight anxiety with anxiety

Term
flooding
Definition
exposure to stimuli that elicit high levels of anxiety for a prolonged period (ie: > 1hr)
Term
in vivo flooding
Definition
involves prolonged/intense exposure to actual anxiety-producing stimuli
Term
the essential component of in vivo flooding
Definition
exposure to a highly aversive situation long enough for the client's discomfort to peak and then start to decline.
Term
response prevention
Definition
during in vivo flooding, clients are specifically prevented from engaging in their typical maladaptive anxiety-reducing responses.
Term
imaginal flooding
Definition
exposure occurs in the client's imagination
Term
implosive therapy
Definition
an imaginal prolonged/intense exposure therapy
Term
who developed implosive therapy?
Definition
Thomas Stampfl and Donald Levis
Term
3 procedures that make implosive therapy different from imaginal flooding
Definition
1.) The use of hypothesized anxiety-producing cues

2.) the exaggeration of scenes to heighten anxiety

3.) the elaboration of scenes as they are presented

Term
eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) was developed by..
Definition
Francine Shapiro
Term
3 phases of EMDR
Definition
1.) assessment and preparation

2.) imaginal flooding

3.) cognitive restructuring

Term
the assessment and preparation phase of EMDR
Definition
1.) clients identify a traumatic image that enduces anxiety

2.) identify the sensations associated w/ the anxiety

3.) assess the level of anxiety from 0-10 SUDs

4.) identify a maladaptive belief associated w/ the event

5.) think of an adaptive belief to replace the old belief

Term
the imaginal flooding phase of EMDR
Definition
the client visualizes the traumatic image while verbalizing the maladaptive belief and concentrating on the physical sensations they bring.

the client is asked to visually track the therapist's index finger as it is moved rapidly back and forth

Term
the cognitive restructuring phase of EMDR
Definition
the client is asked to think about the anxiety-evoking event with adaptive beliefs in mind
Term
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Definition
a stimulus which evokes a regular, measurable response (eg. salivation)
Term
unconditioned response (UCR)
Definition
the regular and measurable response to the UCS
Term
conditioned stimulus (CS)
Definition
a stimulus (A) which does not evoke the UCR and (B) is paired with the UCS
Term
conditioned response (CR)
Definition
a response that results from the pairing of the CS and UCS
Term
instrumental (operant) conditioning
Definition
the response (eg. bar pressing) produces the reinforcement (eg. food)
Term
comparison of classical and instrumental conditioning
Definition
in CC, the response is directly under the control of the investigator, while in IC the reinforcement follows the response.
Term
Pavlov's Theory of the Cerebral Cortex
Definition
1.) conditioning is a function of cortical excitation and inhibition
2.) the stimulation elicited by a stimulus produces an excitatory process in the cortex
3.) the intensity of the spreading effect - "the cortical irradiation of excitation"
Term
general idea of Pavlov's theory of cerebral cortex
Definition
conditioning is a function of cortical excitation and inhibition.

the stimulus activates the cerebral cortex (exciting or inhibiting it)

Term
the intensity of the spreading effect is known as...
Definition
cortical irradiation of excitation
Term
induction
Definition
when a certain area of the cerebral cortex is excited/inhibited, the surrounding area has the opposite effect
Term
3 criticisms of Pavlov's theory
Definition
1.) no direct physiological measures

2.) no evidence for irradiation

3.) conditioning does not only take place in cortex

Term
who created sleep therapy, and why?
Definition
Pavlov; to reduce inhibitions.
Term
Mitchell
Definition
developed rest houses as part of sleep therapy
Term
Salter
Definition
assertive training; worked on increasing excitation
Term
Franks
Definition
Pavlovian psychologist
Term
logical positivism
Definition
theories should be formally stated

all constructs need to be operationally defined

Term
Clark Hull's Monistic Reinforcement Theory
Definition
1.) his philosophy was logical positivism

2.) combined classical conditioning and instrumental learning into one theory

3.) mathematical model

4.) reinforcement was drive reduction

5.) counterconditioning theory

6.) formal statement- E=DxHxVxK-Ir+sIr

Term
E
Definition
behavior
Term
D
Definition
drive (hours of deprivation)
Term
H
Definition
habit (# of trials)
Term
V
Definition
stimulus intensity (decibels)
Term
K
Definition
motivation (ml of saline)
Term
Ir
Definition
fatigue (lever pressing)
Term
sIr
Definition
conditioned inhibition (# of nonreinforced trials)
Term
Tolman created...
Definition
Sign (Cognitive) Learning
Term
Sign-Gestalts can be conceptualized as consisting of 3 parts:
Definition
1.) a sign (expectation)

2.) a significant

3.) a behavior-route leading from sign to significant

Term
what happens when sign becomes integrated w/i the nervous system?
Definition
learning occurs.
Term
when the expectation is confirmed...
Definition
it is learned.
Term
Support for Sign (Cognitive) Learning
Definition
latent learning experiments. Reinforcement is unnecessary (maze study)
Term
objections of Tolman's theory
Definition
construct of thought
Term
Guthry Theory
Definition
pair two stimuli, get learning.

highly cognitive

S-S Theory

Term
Skinner and Ferster came up with...
Definition
schedules of reinforcement
Term
Skinner's two books
Definition
1.) (1938) Behavior of the organism

2.) (1945) Are Learning Theories Necessary?

Term
internal consistency
Definition
the degree to which individual items correlate w/ eachother
Term
validity
Definition
the degree to which the test purports to measure what it says it measures
Term
types of validity
Definition
external corroboration

criterion-related validity

convergent validity

discriminant validity

Term
criterion-related validity
Definition
refers to a tests ability to distinguish between two defined groups
Term
convergent validity
Definition
confirmatory support from another independent method of assessment
Term
discriminant validity
Definition
disconfirmatory support (ie: low correlation) from another independent method of assessment hypothesized to be unrelated to the phenomenon
Term
Skinner said the goal of science is to...
Definition
reduce error variance
Term
Skinner said the goal of science is to...
Definition
reduce error variance
Term
controversial issues in behavior therapy
Definition
use of analogue studies

integration of other techniques

behavior therapy packages

cognitive behavior therapies

single subject & operant design

treatment effectiveness

standardized treatment protocols

Term
fixed interval schedules are characterized by..
Definition
rapid rate of responding before reinforcement and pauses after reinforcement
Term
fixed ratio schedules are characterized by...
Definition
high rates of responding, but there is often a pause after reinforcement

most people are on this schedule

Term
continuous reinforcement produces...
Definition
bursts of responding and extinction
Term
teaching machines can offer...
Definition
errorless learning
Term
Freud said fear-related symptoms were related to...
Definition
avoidance behaviors
Term
according to the two factor theory, how is fear learned?
Definition
classical conditioning
Term
according to two factor theory how is avoidance behavior learned?
Definition
instrumental conditioning
Term
which apparatus produces fastest learning and why? (one-way or shuttle box)
Definition
one-way; because the context (environment) is different
Term
Dollard & Miller wrote a book on...
Definition
Freud's psychoanalysis. They were anti-Freudian
Term
Mowrer's avoidance theory resolved two paradoxes...
Definition
1.) explained how the 1st avoidance response occurred

2.) explained how the avoidance was learned in the absence of the UCS

Term
Fear affects three response systems
Definition
1.) behavioral

2.) cognitive (CNS)

3.) autonomic

Term
learning principles contributing to the development of fear
Definition
1.) classical conditioning

2.) secondary reinforcement

3.) stimulus generalization

4.) response generalization

5.) cognitive mediation

6.) modeling

Term
you can unlearn fear in 3 ways..
Definition
1.) experimental extinction (presenting the CS in the absence of the UCS)

2.) response prevention

3.) vicarious extinction

Term
Freud's neurotic paradox
Definition
why do clinical sypmtoms persist over time when the patient "knows" their behavior is irrational?
Term
3 observations of avoidance conditioning (Solomon & Wynne)
Definition
1.) traumatic shock produced extreme resistance to extinction

2.) the avoidance latencies shortened (1-4 sec). as training progressed, fear decreased.

3.) if the animal made a long latency response (8 sec) the fear response appeared to return w/ a short latency occurring on the next trial (back to high fear)

Term
fear generalizes across...
Definition
cues
Term
Solomon & Wynne's interpretation of their study on avoidance conditioning
Definition
1.) partial irreversibility hypothesis explained extreme resistance to extinction (proven wrong)

2.) the absence of fear with extended training was b/c the animal's quick response to the CS didn't allow the time required to elicit the CR

3.) long latency response to the CS reinstated fear response (conservation of anxiety hypothesis)

Term
conservation of anxiety hypothesis
Definition
fear to any part of the CS will be conserved unless it has been sufficiently exposed to permit full extinction
Term
criticism's of Solomon & Wynne's interpretation
Definition
1.) shock level had nothing to do w/ continued responding

2.) no control group led to false conclusions

Term
non-directive play therapy
Definition
kids can play w/ all the toys in the room, but the kids can't hurt others

maximized effects of Solomon & Wynne

Term
fear generalizes best with stimuli that are...
Definition
similar