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Basic concepts of infant behavior and development
Infant Development A Topical Approach: Chapter 1
43
Education
09/12/2012

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Term
empiricism
Definition
education should provide the skills to make rational choices; inspired by locke
Term
Arnold Lucius Gesell
Definition
Nature. First to use natural observation
Term
maturation
Definition
genetic timetable for the patterning of development
Term
John B. Watson
Definition
Nurture. taught children to be afraid of cuddly animals
Term
Sigmund Freud
Definition
psychological experiences of children
Term
Anna Freud
Definition
create nurturing psychological experiences
Term
Stone, Smith, and Murphy's The Competent Infant
Definition
discover signs of infant intelligence
Term
Three features of developmental change
Definition
1. Changes are not reversible
2.changes are stable
3. changes occur in sequence
Term
habituation
Definition
decrease in interest of a repeated stimulus
Term
recovery
Definition
increase in interest due to a change in stimulus
Term
response-contingent behavior
Definition
operant conditioning
Term
Problem with infant studies
Definition
just because an infant doesn't respond doesn't mean he or she cannot respond
Term
Gibson and Walk
Definition
visual cliff experiment, researched autonomic nervous system responses
Term
actometer
Definition
measures gross motor activity
Term
Hormonal activity recorded
Definition
by blood or saliva tests
Term
Event-related potentials (ERPs)
Definition
Average of electrical activity inside the brain recorded from the central nervous system with electrodes
Term
Neuroimaging techniques
Definition
create pictures of the brain showing where in the brain an activity is taking place
Term
CT (computed tomography)
Definition
use x-rays to track glucose in the brain but do not require sedation.
Term
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance)
Definition
use x-rays to track glucose in brain. requires sedation
Term
observational research methods
Definition
natural variations rather than random assignment
Term
attrition
Definition
subject of longitudinal study drops out prematurely
Term
cross-sectional study
Definition
different group of children at each age period of interest
Term
predictor variable
Definition
independent variable
Term
outcome variable
Definition
dependent variable
Term
reliability
Definition
how consistent is this method
Term
validity
Definition
how accurately does the study measure what it's supposed to measure
Term
representative research
Definition
conclusions can be applied to infants who were not direct participants in the study
Term
microanalysis
Definition
natural observation that includes what is said, nonverbal social expressions, timing, etc.
Term
coding
Definition
process by which observer record the presence or absence of the predefined categories
Term
macroanalysis
Definition
focusing on the overall features in a behavior
Term
rating scale
Definition
list of categories in relation to numerical value
Term
solitary play
Definition
child plays alone
Term
parallel play
Definition
play next to someone
Term
associative play
Definition
respond to others during play but maintain different goals
Term
cooperative play
Definition
play is joint and requires working together
Term
two goals of qualitative research
Definition
1. focus on meaning of situation for subject
2. role of researcher taken into account
Term
participant observer
Definition
researcher taken into account as to how they are effecting the subject
Term
baby biography
Definition
first qualitative research
Term
qualitative study
Definition
detailed study that takes narrative form and explains behavior
Term
credibility
Definition
what validity is in quantitative research. credibility increases as experience increases
Term
constant comparative method
Definition
qualitative researches constantly revise their interpretations
Term
case study
Definition
same subject observed over a long period of time
Term
generalizability
Definition
data applicable to anyone