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ATI Pharmacology NIC
chapters 11-14
105
Pharmacology
09/14/2011

Additional Pharmacology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
CHAPTER 11 - Behavioral Disorders
Definition
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

SSRIS

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
  • Fluoxetine (Prozac)
  • Citalopram (Celexa)
  • Escitalopram (Lexapro)
  • Paroxetine (Paxil)
  • Sertraline (Zoloft)
Term
Uses
Definition
  • Major depression
  • Bulimia
  • Panic
  • PTSD
  • OCD
  • ADHD
Term
Complications
Definition
  • CNS Stimulation
  • Weight loss in early weight gain possibly later
  • Serotonis Syndrome
  • Withdrawal Syndrome
  • Rash
  • Sleepiness
  • GI Bleed
  • Bruxism
Term
Contraindications
Definition

in clients taking MAIOs an TCAs

can increase warfarin levels resultingin risk of bleeding

can increase lithium level

Term
Administration
Definition
  • Use of Alcohol
  • Take Medication with if needed
  • administer in morning
  • Therapeutic effect may not be seen for 1-3 weeks
  • sudden D/C can result in relapse
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

tcas

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition

Amitryptiline (elavil)

Imipramine ( Anafranil)

Clomipramine ( Anafranil)

Nortriptyline (Aventyle)

Term
Uses
Definition
  • Depression
  • depressive episodes of bipolar disorders
  • Autistic disorder
  • ADHD
    Panic
  • PTSD
    OCD
Term
Complications
Definition
  • orthostatic hypotension
  • anticholinergic effects
  • weight gain
  • sedation
  • toxicity
  • decreased seizure threshold
  • excessive sweating
Term
Contraindications
Definition

MAOIs may cause hypertensive

alcohol, opioids, antihistamines

not with TCAs

Term
Administration
Definition
  • therapeutic effects may take 1-3 weeks
  • sudden D/C can result in relapse
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

atypical anxiolytic: nonbarbituate anxiolytic

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
Buspirone
Term
Uses
Definition
  • panic disorder
  • OCD
  • social anxiety
  • PTSD
Term
Complications
Definition

CNS effects

dizziness, nausea, HA, agitation

Term
Contraindications
Definition

Erythromycin

Ketoconazole

Grapefruit Juice

Term
Administration
Definition
  • take with meals
  • take on regular basis
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

CNS Stimulants

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
  • Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
  • Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)
    Dextroamphetamine (DextroStat)
  • Amphetamine Mixture (Adderrall)
Term
Uses
Definition
  • ADHD
  • Conduct Disorder
Term
Complications
Definition
  • Cns Stimulation
  • Weight Loss
  • Cardiovascular Effects
  • hallucinations
  • withdrawal reaction
  • hypersensitivity skin to transdermal route
Term
Contraindications
Definition
  • MAIOs
  • caffeine
  • inhibits Dilantin and Coumadin
  • OTC Cold and decongestant meds
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

Norepinephrine selective reuptake inhibitor

Definition
Term
Med
Definition
Atomoxetine (Strattera)
Term
Use
Definition
ADHD
Term
Complications
Definition
  • Weight Loss
  • GI effects (N/V)
  • Suicidal Ideation
  • Hepatoxicity

 

Term
Contrainindications
Definition
  • cardiovascular disorders - use cautiously
  • MAOIs

 

Term
Administration
Definition
  • not any changes in behavior
  • may take 1 week for effects to develop
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

Antipsychotics - Atypical

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
  • Risperidone (Risperdal)
  • Olanzapine (Zyprexa)
  • Quetiapine (Seroquel)
Term
Uses
Definition
  • Pervasive development disorders
  • conduct disorder
  • PTSD
  • relief of psychotic symptoms
Term
Complications
Definition
  • onset of diabetes
  • weight gain
  • hypercholesterolemia
  • orthostatic hypotension
  • anticholinergic effects
  • agitation, dizziness, sleep issues
  • mild extrapyramidal such as tremors 
Term
Contrainindications
Definition
  • alcohol
  • dilantin
  • diflucan
Term

QUESTION #1

a nurse is caring for an adolescent in an inpt facility who has been diagnosed with major depression. The client has just started taking Prozac. what changes in the client weight could the nurse expect to see?

Definition
may cause initial weight loss but over a long period of time weight gain may actually occur. monitor weight ad nutritional status while taking this med
Term

QUESTION #2

a nursee is caring for an adolescent whi is taking Elavil for depression. for which of the following should the nurse monitor

  • Diarrhea
  • Bradycardia
  • Increased Salivation
  • Urinary Hesitation
Definition
Urinary Hesitation
Term

QUESTION #3

A nurse is caring for a school aged chiled who recently began Strattera. for which should the nurse monitor

  • pale-colored urine
  • upper abdominal tenderness
  • seizure activity
  • blurred vision
Definition
Upper abdominal tenderness because of possible liver damage
Term

QUESTION #4

a nurse is teaching a school aged child and his parents proper use of Daytrana transdermal patch. which statment demonstrates understanding

  • I will change to a new patch every other day after breakfast
  • I will take the old patch off q am and put a new one on
  • I will take the patch off no more than 9 hrs
  • I will change the patch once a week
Definition
I will take the patch off no more than nine hours after putting it on every day
Term

QUESTION #5

a child experiencing psychotic symptoms is beginning risperdone. the nurse plans to monitor periodic results of which lab value?

  • WBC count
  • hgb and hct
  • Fasting blood glucose
  • serum sodium
Definition
Fasting blood glucose
Term

Chapter 12 - Substance Abuse

 

Definition
Term
Alcohol
Definition
  • Effects usually 4-12 hrs and peaks 24-48 hr
  • N/V, tremors, inability to sleep, tachycardia, diphoresis, seizures
  • Librium, Valium, Ativan during detox
  • disulfiram (Antabuse), Naltrexone (ReVia), Acamprostate ( Campral) -  help following detox
Term
Definition
Term
Opioids
Definition

withdrawal within 1 hour to several days

agitation, insomnia, rhinorhhea, suicidal ideation

Methadone (Dolophine)

Clonidine (Catapres)

Buprenorphine (Subutex) with Naloxene (Suboxone)

 

Term
Nicotine
Definition

irritability, nervousness, insomnia

Bupropion (wellbutrin)

nictoine replacement therapy

Term

QUESTION #1

a nurse is monitoring a client who is receiving Ativan from withdrawal of alcohol. BP is stabilized, what other manifestations should the nurse watch for?

 

Definition
Pulse, Respirations, and temp should stabilize N/V should decrease, sleeping should be easier and tremors decrease
Term

QUESTION #2

a nurse is teaching a client who is taking Colidine, which requires further instruction

  • I can chew gum to help relieve a side effect
  • This medication will take my cravings away from drugs
  • I will probably be drowsy at first while taking this med
  • This med should relieve the nausea
Definition
This Medication will help take away my cravings for drugs
Term
Chapter 13 - chronic neurological disorders
Definition
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

cholinesterase inhibitors

 

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
  • Neostigmine (Prostigmine)
  • Ambenonium (Mytelase)
  • Pyridostigmine (Mestinone)
  • Edrophonium (Tensilon)
Term
Complications
Definition
  • increased GI Motility
  • bradycardia
  • urinary urgency
  • Cholinergic Crisis
Term
Contraindications
Definition

Preg risk C

obstruction of GI

 

Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

anti-parkinsons medications

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
  • Dopaminergics - Levodopa
  • Pramipexole (Mirapex)
  • Benztropine (Cogentin)
  • Amantadine (Symmetrel)
  • Ropinirole (Requipe)
  • Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
  • Trihexyphenidyl (Artane)
Term
Uses
Definition
do not halt pd progression, they offer systomatic relief and increase to perform ADL
Term
Complications
Definition

Levodopa

N/V, dyskinesias, orthostatic hypotension, cardivascular effects, psychosis, discoloration of urine and sweat, activation of malignant melanoa

Pramipexole

inability to stay awake, orthostatic hypotension, psychosis, dyskinesias, nausea

Benztropine

N/V, anticholenergic effects, antihistamine effects

Amantadine

CNS Effects, confusion, anticholenergic effects, discoloration of skin

Levodopa plus Carbidopa

abnormal movements psychiatric disorders

Term
Contrainindications
Definition

Levodopa

preg risk C

MAIOs

Pramipexole

preg risk c

 

Term
Administration
Definition
  • may not be noticeable for several weeks or months
  • eat high protein meals and snacks
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

Antiepileptics (AEDS)

Definition
Term
MEDS
Definition
  • Phenobarbital (Luminal)
  • Primidone (Mysoline)
  • Phenytoin (Dilantin)
  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
  • Ethosuximide (Zarontin)
  • Valprioc Acid (Depakote)
  • Gabapentin (Neurontin)
  • Diazepam (Valium)
  • Lorazepam (Ativan)
  • Lamotrigine (Lamictal)
  • Oxcarbaxepine (Trileptal)
Term
Uses
Definition
Decrease Seizures
Term
Complications
Definition

Phenocarbital

CNS Effects - drowsiness, confusion, anxiety

Toxicity

Phenytoin

CNS Effects - nystagmus, sedations

Ginivia hyperplasia

skin rash

teratogenic

cardiovascular effects

endocrine and other effects

carbamazepine

CNS Effects - nystagmus, dbl vision

blood dyscrasias

hypo-osmolarity

skin disorders

Ethosuximide

Gi effects

CNS effects - sleepiness, fatigue

Gi Effects - N/V

Hepatoxicty

Pancreatitis

Thrombocytopenia

Gabapentin

drowsiness

nystagmus

Diazepam

Respiratory depression

anterograde amnesia

Term

QUESTION #1

clients who take phenytoin must perform good oral hygiene, why?

 

Definition
ginivial hyperplasia is a complication which is an overgrowth of gum tissue. bleeding gums and swelling and tenderness may result. should brush well, floss between teeth, and perform gum massage.
Term

QUESTION #2

a client has been diagnosed with abscence seizures, what types of medications are used to treat this type?

 

 

Definition

Ethosuximide (Zarontin)

Valprioc Acid (Depakote)

Term

QUESTION #3

a nurse is caring for a client taking valproic acid (Depakote) to prevent seizures. What lab values should the nurse monitor?

Definition
Severe hepatoxicity an pancreatitis could occur. monitor LFT and amylase values
Term

QUESTION #4

a client with parkinsons is taking levadopa/carbidopa (Sinemet) and pramipexole (mirapex) which should the nurse monitor?

Definition
Orthostatic Hypotension is a effect of both of these meds, hence the two combined makes the chance even higher
Term

QUESTION # 5

a client with parkinsons has a new prescription for Levodopa (Dopar) which of the followings would the nurse watch for

  • Hallucinations
  • Memory Loss
  • Mania
  • Paranoid Ideas
  • Nightmares
Definition
Hallucinations, paranoid ideas, and nightmares
Term
Chapter 14 - eye and ear disorders
Definition
Term

EYE DISORDERS

Types of Glaucoma

Definition

Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma - (POAG)

periphereal vision is lost gradually

IOP greater than 21 mm hg is at highest risk for POAG

Angle Closure glaucoma

acute disorder with sudden onset

irreversible blindness within 1-2 days without emergency

ocular pain, halos around lights, blurred vision, and photopia

Term

Ear Disorders

 

Definition

Acute Otitis Media

mostly in young children

build up of fluid in middle ear

acute onset of pain

Otitis Externa

swimmers ear

Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

beta-adrenergic blockers

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition

Tomilol (Timoptic)

Carteolol (Ocupress)

Metipranolol (Optiipranolol)

Levobunolol (Betagan Liquifilm)

Term
Uses
Definition

topical to treat POAG

may use to treat angle closure on emergency level

Term
Complications
Definition
  • stinging
  • conjuctivitis
  • systemic of beta blocker on heart and lungs can occur
Term
Contraindications
Definition
  • Oral beta adrenergic blockers
  • beta adrenergic blockers

 

Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

alpha2 adrenergic agonists

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
  • Brimonidine (alphagan)
  • Araclonidine (Iopidine)
Term
Uses
Definition

Brimonidine long term topical treatment

iopidine for short term treatment

both for POAG

Term
Complications
Definition
  • localized stinging
  • blurred vision
  • reddened slera
  • hypotension
Term
Contraindications
Definition
antihypertensives may intensify hypotension
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFIATION

Prostaglandin analogs

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
  • Latanoprost (Xalatan)
  • Travoprost (Travatan)
  • Bimatoprost (Lumigan)
Term
Uses
Definition
first line medicationi for POAG and ocular hypertension
Term
Complications
Definition
  • permanent increased brown pigment
  • stinging burning reddened conjuctiva
  • blurred vision
  • Migraine
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

osmotic agents

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
  • Mannitol (Osmitrol)IV
  • Urea (Ureaphil) IV
    Glycerin (Osmogly) PO
  • Isosorbide (Ismotic) PO
Term
Uses
Definition
treat rapid progression of angle closure glaucoma to prevent blindness
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (systemic)

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
  • acetazolamide (Diamox)
  • Methazolamide (Glauctabs, Neptazane)
Term
Uses
Definition

Lowers IOP in which other meds have been inaffective

emergency med prior to surgey for acute angle

second line med for POAG

Glaucoma

Acute Mountain Sickness, and heart failure

Term
Complications
Definition
  • severe allergic reactions
  • rare serious blood disorders
  • GI Effects
  • Electrolyte Depletion
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • CNS Disturbance
  • Glucose disturbances in clients with DM
Term
Contraindications
Definition
  • Acetazolamide preg risk C
  • use during lactation only after evaluation by MD
  • high dose aspirin may result in acidosis

 

Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

antimicrobials

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
  • Amoxicillin (Amoxil)
  • Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (Augmentin)
  • Ceftriazone (Rocephin)
  • Cefdinir (Omnicef)
  • Cefuroxime (Ceftin)
  • Cefpodoximin (vantin)
  • Azithromycin (Zithromax)
  • Clindamycin (Cleocin)
Term
Uses
Definition
Otitis media and bacterial infections throughout the body
Term
Complications
Definition
  • possible allergic reaction
  • GI Upset
  • Suprainfection
Term

MEDICATION CLASSIFICATION

Fluoroquinilone Antibiotic plus steriod medication

Definition
Term
Meds
Definition
  • Ciproflaxin plus dexamethasone (Cipro HC)
  • Acetic Acid 2% solution drops (Vasolate)
  • Ofloxacin Otic drops (Floxin)
Term
Uses
Definition
Otitis Externa
Term
Complications
Definition

CNS Effects - dizzness, tremors, convulsions

Rash

Term

QUESTION #1

after instilling an eye drop that has a systemic effect the nurse should press which of the following to prevent absorption into the circulation?

  • The bony orbit
  • The nasolacrimal Duct
  • The conjuctival sac
  • The outer canthus of eye
Definition
The nasolacrimal duct - for 30-60 seconds this prevents movement into the circulation system
Term

QUESTION #2

a client has been prescribed brimonidine (alphagan), 1 drop daily in his right eye. he tells the nurse he wears contacts and wants to know if he can put them in while wearing contacts.

Definition
The nurse should tell the client to remove the contact, instill the drop and wait 15 min before putting it back in.
Term

QUESTION #3

a nurse is caring for a client who has just been diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma. which of the following does the nurse expect to find?

  • sudden loss of central vision
  • intraocular pressure 19 mm hg
  • no reports of pain
  • intact peripheral vision
Definition
No reports of Pain
Term

QUESTION # 4

a nurse is preparing to administer Timolol (Timoptic) drops into the eye of a client who has glaucome. for which adverse effect should the nurse monitor

  • Hypertension
  • Bradycardia
  • Seizures
  • Jaundice
Definition
a possible adverse effect includes beta blockas on the heart and resp systems. the nurse should monitor heart rate for bradycardia
Term

QUESTION #5

a nurse is caring for a preschooler who has otitis externa bilaterally. prescriptio of ciproflaxin plus dexamethasone. the childs mother asks the nurse what type of medication is in the drops, what is the correct reply?

Definition
Ciproflazin is an antibiotic to treat infection and dexamethasone is an antinflammatory agent which will decrease swelling in the ear canal