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Assignment #2
BSC2086 Prof Momeny TCC
63
Physiology
11/14/2012

Additional Physiology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Inhaling through the nostrils is preferred over the mouth because
Definition
it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air
Term
The auditory tubes open into the
Definition
nasopharynx
Term
Which direction does carbon dioxide move during internal respiration
Definition
From the blood to the tissue cells
Term
Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
Definition
greater than the pressure in the atomosphere
Term
What is one atmosphere of pressure?
Definition
760 mm Hg
Term
If the volume of the lungs increases, what happens to the air pressure inside the lungs?
Definition
decreases
Term
________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
Definition
Inspiratory reserve volume
Term
When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscle contract
Definition
volume of the thorax increases
Term
Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
Definition
decrease the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli
Term
Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
Definition
movement of air into and out of the lungs
Term
Alveolar ventilation refers to the
Definition
movement of air into and out of the alveoli
Term
If a patient inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
Definition
Vital capacity
Term
The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
Definition
100 mm Hg
Term
The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
Definition
40 mm Hg
Term
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
Definition
45 mm Hg
Term
Each of the following factors affect the rate of external respiration except?
Definition
diameter
Term
Each of the following factors affect the rate of external respiration:
Definition
A) PO2 of the alveoli.
B) PCO2 of the blood.
C) thickness of the respiratory membrane.
E) solubility of oxygen in plasma.
Term
Dalton's Law of gases relates to
Definition
partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases
Term
Chloride shift occurs in order to
Definition
transport bicarbonate ion into the blood plasma
Term
About 70% of carbon dioxide is transported in deoxygenated blood
Definition
as bicarbonate ions in the blood plasma
Term
At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ___ percent saturated with oxygen.
Definition
more than 90
Term
Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
Definition
decreased pH
Term
Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
Definition
Pco2 should be low
Term
Carbonic anhydrase
Definition
is in RBC
is an enzyme
can increase the amout of bicarbonate ion in plasma
can decrease the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma
Term
The percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.6 is
Definition
greater than the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.2
Term
The percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the temperature is 38 degrees centigrade is
Definition
greater than the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the temp is 43 degree centigrade
Term
Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low Po2. This increases the effectiveness of
Definition
internal respiration
Term
Hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen when the BPG level is high is
Definition
less than hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen when the BPG level is low
Term
All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata
Definition
medullary chemoreceptors.

aortic body.

carotid body.
Term
Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brains ability to regulate breathing in response to
Definition
changes in Pco2, Po2 and pH
Term
Function of Proximal DT
Definition
absorption of ion, organic molecules, vitamins and water
Term
Process of filtration occurs
Definition
glomerular capsule
bowman
Term
Glomeruli located?
Definition
cortex
Term
Glomeruli tufts of ____________
Definition
capillaries
Term
Component of nephron confined in renal medulla
Definition
loop of henle
and
collecting ducts
Term
Function of medulla
Definition
absorb more water
Term
Renal blood flow is about?
Definition
1 liter per min
Term
Substances larger than __________ are normally not allowed to pass through filtration membrane
Definition
Albumin
also
antibodies
Term
Process of filtration is driven by?
Definition
blood hydrostatic pressure
Term
Approx how much blood enters glomerular capsule each day?
Definition
180 liters
Term
Normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressure
Definition
blood hydrostatic pressure

blood colloid osmotic pressure

capsular hydrostatic pressure
Term
blood colloid osmotic pressure

capsular hydrostatic pressure
Definition
push fluid inside capillary
Term
Mechanism of kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure
Definition
increase secretion of renin by juxtaglomerular complex
Term
__________ produced in juxtaglomerular
Definition
Renin
Term
ADH created?
Definition
pituitary
Term
ADH affects nephron in water reabsorption
Definition
work in distal tubule and collecting duct
Term
Ability to form concentrated urine depends on the function of?
Definition
Loop of henle

collecting duct
Term
Mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves?
Definition
secretion of ADH by neurohypophysis

aquaporins being inserted into membrane of collecting duct

high concentration of NaCl in interstitial fluid that surrounds the collecting ducts

Increase in facultative water reabsorption
Term
Thick ascending limb is ___________ to water
Definition
impermeable
Term
ADH working in distal CT and Collecting duct able to reabsorb ______
Definition
H20
Term
Absense of ______ will cause large volume of dilute urine
Definition
ADH
Term
Antidiruetic Hormone
Definition
increased permeability of collecting duct to water
Term
Drugs that inhibit ACE lead to
Definition
decreased blood pressure

Decrease of aldosterone

Increase loss of sodium in urine

Decrease sodium reabsorption
Term
What undergoes tubular secretion
Definition
hydrogen ions
Term
Secreted by distal CT
Definition
hydrogen ions

penicillin

creatinine

potassium ions
Term
Which substance not found in filtrate
Definition
protein
Term
Filtrate in proximal convoluted tubule contains?
Definition
hydrogen ions

water

nutrients

urea
Term
Loop of Henle
Definition
relies on countercurrent multiplication

creates high interstitial NaCl concentration

enables production of hypertonic urine

site of obligatory water reabsorption
Term
When level of ADH decreases
Definition
osmolarity of urine decreases
Term
Agents that increase urine excretion
Definition
diuretics
Term
As filtrates pass through renal tubules, what % is reabsorbed and returned to circulation?
Definition
99%
Term
Response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys:
Definition
urine with lower concentration of sodium ions
Term
Proximal CT reabsorbs _____ of filtrate?
Definition
60%