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Archaeology of Ancient Italy #2
Vocabulary for weekly quizzes
123
Archaeology
03/02/2011

Additional Archaeology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 

 

 

REPUBLIC

Definition

 

created in 509 BC

following the expulsion of the Etruscan King- Tarquin the proud

the executive role was placed in the hands of two magistrates, later known as consuls who wer elected for a period of one year.  They were drawn from a group of aristocrats, the patricians who formed what was in effect the govering body of Rome, the Senate 

·      literally from latin a public matter – res publica

·      two annually elected consuls

·      not only relies on senate or assemblied but also

·      first counsel of rome (LUCIUS JUNIUS brutus)

 

Term

 

 

 

VEII

Definition

rome's enemy of great power.

etruscan city

war lasted from 405 until 396 BC - early fourth century Veii fell - war effectively erased Veii from the political map

Term

 

 

 

LATIN WAR

Definition

resulted in a very considerable extension of Roma controlled territory and it was therefore necessary to decide how this - and its inhabitants shoudl be administered.

dangerous coalition of tribes including the Campanians and Volsci and led by a group of the Latins

war broke out in 340 BC and lasted for more than two years

Term

 

 

 

COLONIAE

Definition

newly created roman settlements

these were designed both to make land available for the Roman poor and to safegaurd the interests of the Republic

some found during 5th century bu the main thrust came after the latin war...some were military foundations

Term

 

 

 

SAMNITE WARS

Definition

1st one- broke out in 354 BC

2nd one - in 327 hostilities again broke out with the samnites following the foundation of a coony at Fregellae...when the important samnite centre of Bovanium fell in 305, th eso called second samnite war came to an end ?

 

Term

 

 

 

PYRRHUS

Definition
disquieted towards rome's role in their afairs, and decided to ask Pyrrhus, king of Epirus in north-west Greece to intercede on their behalf-disastrous decision-landing in 280 BC he fought the romans at Heraclea and at Ausculum- his resources became increasingly depleted, so that when a third and final encounter took place betwween his army and the romans, he was conclusively defeated - saw the end of greek resistance
Term

 

 

 

HANNIBAL

Definition
in 219 he attacked a town that was under roman protection-saguntum.  these were pre-empted by hannibals famous march over the alps into italy with a force of 20,000 infanty...in 203 he although undefeated decided to withdraw from Italy and return to Africa
Term

 

 

 

POMPEY

Definition

one of the figures to emerge as a formidable general during sullas period of power was this guy called magnus( pompey the great) after 81.

a charismatic man he commanded widespread support: in the words of hsi biographer, plutarch 'some seriously gave hi the name of alexasnder, and he did not refuse it.

his rise to power was the outcome of an outstanding seriees of military succcesses combined with a shrewd aproach role in quelling the slave revolt led by spartacus and in suppressing piraccy as factor that helped to make him both immensely powerful and popular

in 60 BC he crassus and julius caesar fromed what came to known as the first triumvirate

 

Term

 

 

 

SULLA

Definition

in 88 BC was consul.

a patrician nole with little regard for niceties he was asked to lead an army to the east mediterranean to put down Mithridates, king of pontus and champion of many who were suffering at the hands of the romans

sullas death in 78

civil war of 83-82 between sulla and the supporters of Marius

his infamous purges and ruthless dictatorship and the reinforcement of the authroity of the oligarchy set a pattern for the final decades of the republic

did nothign to weed out the deeper causes of social discontent

Term

 

 

 

TRAJAN

Definition

non-italian emperor

(AD 97-117) 

born in spain and was from a 'new' family

an innovative thinker trajan had money to spend and inititated many building programmes in Italy and abroad.  

important scheme he was responsible for was the ALIMENTA

Term

 

 

 

ALIMENTA

Definition

trajan responsible for this

provided for the public payment of subsistence in Italy.  It worked by making state loans to landowners, the interest being used to finance the allowences.

these were specifically for poor children with the intended aim of raising the italian birth rate

did encourage some rich to maek their own private provision for the poor.

Term

 

 

 

HIPPODAMOS

Definition

 

  • in antiquity the fifth century Greek architect 
  • father of town-planning
  • "the arrangement of private dwellings is thought to be more agreeable and more convenient if they are laid ou tin straight steets, after the modern fashion, that is, the one introduced by  Hippodamus
  • he planned Athens harbour town, Piraeus and probably designed  the successor to the ill-fated Sybaris - Thurii

 

Term

 

 

 

CASTRUM

Definition

 

any military camp; in some colonies where there was a garrison or very specific military component..castrum was at heart of settlement

 

·      in some cases evolved into a forum

·      often has an orthoganal plan (right angles)

·      roman cities (2 streets)

o   cardo

o   decumanus

o   where they intersect is the castrum

 

Term

 

 

 

MUNICIPIUM

Definition

 

  • problem: rome had neither the manpower nor the resources to pu tin administrators and had therefore, to devise other means
  • answer: type of town
  • the inhabitants became full roman citizens being liable both for taxation and military sevice, while the town remained locally autonomous, with its own traditions and laws
  • towns not deemed suffiecient  were designated sine suffragio without voting rights

 

Term

 

 

 

PIACENZA

Definition

 

  • founded in May 218 BC
  • it was the 53 colony
  • was a vulnerable foudnation
  • situated beside an important crossing of the River Po in flat and open terrain
  • settlement large and strongly defended taking the form of a castrum
  • was a new town laid out  --  so far as we know on virgin ground

 

Term

 

 

 

COSA

Definition

 

COSA – location refounded to beef up population – originally a colonia

PLAN OF COSA

·      Forum (buildings)

o   Curia = senate house #3

o   comitium = assembly

o   basilica = equivalent to gk stoa #5

§  like a kings hall/ public covered space

§  usually two story

§  always colonnaded

§  almost surely had timber roofs

§  increasingly popular in roman architecture

o   #9 capitolium

§  sort of follows Etrusco-Italic design

·      excavated by the American academy in rome, 30’s

·      remains of harbor piers along the coast outside the ancient site of Cosa

o   among the earliest examples of HYDRAULIC CONCRETE

§  hydraulic concrete – will dry in water!

§  Unique property of volcanic stone = POZZOLANA

§  which comes from naples area PUTEOLI(LATIN) à POZZUOLI (ITALIAN)

§  could pour into the sea and could harden and set under the water

§  but would continue to get harder and harder over time

§  cosa piers ~ 150 BC

o   pier 1 , western side, showing impressions for planking of ancient wooden cofferdam revealed in excavations of 1968…impressions of wood left on concrete

o   purpose: creating closed protected harbour

 

Term

 

 

 

CAPTOLIUM

Definition
Term

 

 

 

PAESTUM

Definition
Term

 

 

 

LUNI

Definition
Term

 

 

 

CASTRUM

Definition
Term
VITRUVIUS
Definition
Term
BASILICA
Definition
Term
OPUS INCERTUM
Definition
Term
OPUS RETICULATUM
Definition
Term
FORUM
Definition
Term
POMPEII
Definition
Term
AUGUSTALES
Definition
Term
INSULA
Definition
Term
DOMUS
Definition
Term
ATRIUM
Definition
Term
VILLA MARITIMAE
Definition
Term
VILLA RUSTICAE
Definition
Term
BOSCOREALE
Definition
Term
CATO
Definition
Term
Definition
Term
VARRO
Definition
Term
LATIFUNDIA
Definition
Term
SETTEFINESTRE
Definition
Term
CENTURIATION
Definition
Term
ALIMENTA
Definition
Term
[image]
Definition

LAPIS NIGER INSCRIPTION

 laid with black pavement

 

·      for a long time many ancients associated this with a tombs – romulus?

·      black pavement is called – Lapis Niger – opposite of that is ater, atra = dull – atrium = working room of roman houses

·      found altar of tufa blocks and burnt animal bones

·      IMPORTANT FIND: cippus/ stele (boundary marker) made out of tufa that has inscription on it which is archaic latin

·      6th century BC archaic pd.

o   clear reference to a king = rex

o   pottery

o   little figurines with a LITUUS (curved stick) used by Augurs to dilineate the field of vision

o   connection to ritual activity and Etruscan presence

o   / latin presence in forum 

 

Term
[image]
Definition

TEMPLE OF VESTA

  9 circular monument

·      remains of a circular temple of Vesta = goddess of the hearth

·      sacred fire of the city of rome

·      middle of the 6th c BC in earliest form

·      no cult statue

·      job of vestule virgins to protect fire

·      circular plan quite different

·      imitation of same iron age

·      where some of romes sacrd objects were house including:

o   Palladium

o   also home to important set of gods

§  Penates (uniquely roman idea/concept)

§  household gods associated with penus associated with storeroom (pantry)

§  every individual roman who owned a home…had their own penates

§  bronze figurine

·      no man was allowed to enter temple except for one

o   head priest – PONTIFEX MAXIMUS

Term
[image]
Definition

TEMPLE OF FORTUNA @ PRAENESTE

 

remains of a sanctuary – temple of fortuna at praeneste

·      150 BC?

·      architecture becomes something to be experienced

·      temple sites associated with ASKLEPIOS

o   to latin he becomes aesculapius

o   god of healing

·      moving through a building is part of the healing process!! IMPORTANTE

·      plan of this is triangular

·      there is an apex and you have to get there

·      used a series of terraces

·      built on superimposed levels

·      unique: interest in surprise architecture – built a whole series of ramps

·      physically and emotionally move a visitor

·      at the very back an oracular shrine – temple of fortuna

·      made of concrete

·      Barberini gained most control of this estate

o   collected antiquities

o   medieval family

o   legacy – collected in earnest

o   famous quote – QUOD NON FECERUNT BARBARI, FECERUNT BARBERINI – if barbarians didn’t dismantle barbarini did

·      BARBERINI mosaic – inside an apse in fortunus

o   pretty badly damaged during WWII

o   large floor mosaic

o   overall theme – NILOTIC scene – scene that shows nile in flood

o   interest in classifying – meant to instruct and educate

 

Term
[image]
Definition

BARBERINI MOSAIC 150 BC?

 BARBERINI mosaic – inside an apse in fortunus

 

o   pretty badly damaged during WWII

o   large floor mosaic

o   overall theme – NILOTIC scene – scene that shows nile in flood

o   interest in classifying – meant to instruct and educate

 

Term
[image]
Definition

ARRINGATORE ‘ Haranguer’

 

·      persuading them/addressing them through oratory

·      associated with politicians/ lawyers

·      his gesture – addressing

·      bronze statue

·      found in : from lake Trasimene (near Perugia)

·      150-100 BC

·      how he got there…we don’t know

·      bronze sculpture left on land was melted down for other use

·      wears a certain kind of toga = toga exigua = short toga (skimpy)

o   goes out of style around first century BC

o   helps date sculpture

·      effort to depict a roman

o   boots – laced up

o   caligae à Caligula (ul makes it diminutive) little boots

·      Cato the elder – writer who said too much of anything greek would corrupt  (mos maiorum) = tradition of greater people (ancestral tradition) = way of doing things/ way of ancestars

o   wearing a gold ring – citizenry

o   on toga there is a hem – means looking at toga praetexta which says he is an elected official – magistrate

o   inscribed hem – written in Etruscan – tells us his name is Aulus Metellus and he has paid a fine as a mean of attoning for some legal case

o   embraced costume of roman citizen, yet he is truscan

 

Term
[image]
Definition

VERISTIC HEAD

“warts and all” approach to sculpture

 

·      veristic head

·      funerary tradition

o   incorporation of wax masks made of various family members

o   basically death masks

o   kept in the house and brought out when there was another funeral

o   would either get someone to wear mask or carry it

 

Term
[image]
Definition

PRIMA PORTA AUGUSTUS

 comes from site prima porta

 

·      site of a villa inhabited by augustus wife name livia

·      as far as we know it was not a public statue

·      some traces of paint

·      overall theme: augustus in his military role bc of his military garb

·      in control and seems to be addressing

·      based off of “doryphoros” = spear bearer  by Polykleitos,440 BC

o   canon – serve as the standard of classical sculpture

·      seems to epitomize heroic youth ideals

·      divine references: got from Caesar

·      little kid has wings = he is cupid

·      military man but also associated with divine

·      carass

o   return of the military s

 

Term
[image]
Definition
ARA PACIS
Term
[image]
Definition
POLYPHEMUS GROUP FROM SPERLONGA 
Term
[image]
Definition
LAKE NEMI SHIP
Term
[image]
Definition
PORTA MAGGIORE
Term
[image]
Definition

DOMUS AUREA

interesting room marked by letter D known as the octagonal room

 

ú  octagonal shape

ú  whats behind it

·      ring with 8 pillars and vault that springs above those pillars

·      top of that octagonal dome is an opening called the oculus – very important roman feature for baths – concrete domes

·      appealing to the romans becaue of hidden light sources

·      light wells near oculus through little vaulted archways

·      some of the dorms would probably rotate/revolve

·      dropped flowers/perfume on those beneath/some covered in ivory


 

Term
[image]
Definition

LAOCOON GROUP

  at the end of one such vaulted area – was the LAOCOON – a Trojan priest

 

§  great example of Hellenistic baroque

§  is this a copy or greek original

ú  signed by 3

·      hagesandros

·      polydoros

·      athenodoros

§  found in 1506 with Michelangelo in attendance at the domus aurea

§  made out of 7 different pieces

§  the back of the sculpture – is almost flat and not really treated – meant to be in a niche

§  don't know if copy or original…

 

Term
[image]
Definition

FLAVIAN AMPHITHEATER

followed by FLAVIAN AMPHITHEATER aka coliseum because of statue called colossus

 

ú  built on artificial lake

ú  Vespasian – claimed land that was popular with roman people…no longer private but belonged to all

ú  funded by spoils of jewish wars

ú  Vespasian begins building around 79 and titus opens it and Domitian continues

ú  what is an amphitheater?

·      both – theater – theater back to back/front to front

ú  other sites with amphitheaters

·      Pompeii

·      in rome early ones were made of wood

ú  relatively roman in size in scope and scale – never had been done before

ú  once drained – had to cut a trench in clay

ú  made of travertine (piers) – load bearing elements

ú  other ingredients are tufa and concrete

ú  in between piers are walls made of tufa  which creates solid mass on which you can build subsequent stories and everywhere else you have concrete

ú  enormous elliptical ring

ú  created 76 different entrances

ú  50-55,000 ppl

ú  exterior

·      remains of brick faced concrete

·      sculptural architectural Doric -> to ionic -> to Corinthian columns (form bottom to top) and at top have pilaster ( essentially an engaged square column

·      uppermost story have engaged pilasters and know that top story carried circular bronze shields and higher than that brackets

o   meant to support poles to hold an enormous awning to provide shade

o   Gild – VELATORES – in charge with securing and adjusting/maintaining awning

o   and line would have come down to be secured to stones outside on ground around colosseo

o   awning = VELARIUM

ú  interior guts

·      complicated system of ramps/ pulleys/ trap doors

·      trap doors led up to arena = harena ( sand) would have been covered in sand

·      Domitian built 4 gladiatorial schools in dormitories connected to flavian amphi

 

Term
[image]
Definition

ARCH OF TITUS

   famous source of white marble – MT. PENTELIC from Athens

 

·      among the highest quality of marble

·      just faced with marble

·      a place through which to pass – explanation for arch

·      have the inscription at top

o   SPQR- senate and people of rome

o   divus = godlike/deified vs. dues = god

o   to titus who is godlike son of deified espasian

·      main venue of art is inside arch – sculpture

·      almost mimics procession itself

·      the four horses = quadriga

·      triumphant general shown in chariot followed by whole series of soldiers who carry spoils of jewish conquest including standards ( legions), menorah, trumpets, table of the show bread – symbolism of whats come out of Jerusalem

·      center of arch you will see – large eagle ( bird of zeus) and carrying titus to heavens = apotheosis

 

Term
[image]
Definition
FLAVIAN PALACE
Term
ROMULUS & REMUS
Definition

 

·      prophecy that numitors daughter – RHEA SILVIA – will bear a son that will become king

·      his solution is make Rhea Silvia a  VESTAL VIRGIN

·      she is visited by god mars or aries she gives birth to twins – rmulus and rhemus

·      who are then saved by a sheperd by FAUSTULUS

·      UNTIl then they are nursed by wolf/ lupa

·      quarrels between romulus and remus and romulus slays remus

·      in 753 BC – romulus goes on to find rome

 

Term
FAUSTULUS
Definition

 

·      his solution is make Rhea Silvia a  VESTAL VIRGIN

·      she is visited by god mars or aries she gives birth to twins – rmulus and rhemus

·      who are then saved by a sheperd by FAUSTULUS

 

Term
VIRGIL'S AENEID
Definition

 

theory #2

·       pius AENEAS / AENEID written by author VIRGIL

·      1200-1175 end of the bronze age

·      an epic based on greek prototype

·      bronze age epic of italy written in first century BC – in early years of roman empire

·      written in Homeric fashion

·      his father is anchises

·      and his son – ASCANIUS ( aeneas son)

·      AETIOLOGICAL MYTHS  - relies of phenomenon of aetiology which explains the origin or beginning of place, phenomenon or people

·      anchises holds household god? Athena

·      PALLADIUM – PALLAS – statue of Athena rescued from troy as they made their escape

·      the three and a small group of Trojan refugees flee burning troy and ultimately arrive in a place called LAVINIUM

·      there he marries the daughter of the “latin man” (latinus)

 

Term
AETIOLOGY
Definition

 

·      AETIOLOGICAL MYTHS  - relies of phenomenon of aetiology which explains the origin or beginning of place, phenomenon or people

 

Term
AENEAS
Definition
Term
LAVINIUM
Definition

 

·      PALLADIUM – PALLAS – statue of Athena rescued from troy as they made their escape

·      the three and a small group of Trojan refugees flee burning troy and ultimately arrive in a place called LAVINIUM

·      there he marries the daughter of the “latin man” (latinus)

 

Term
HEROON
Definition

 

·      saw a  heroon = a hero thing/hero place

place that honors or glorifies a hero or place

 

Term
ASCANIUS
Definition

aeneus son - 

ascanius is credited with finding alba longa forming the connecting tissue between that and romulus/ rhea silvia

Term
ALBA LONGA
Definition
king of alba longa - kind of form descent line between ascanius and romulus - alban hills
Term
MONARCHY (753-509 BC)
Definition

 

·      romulus (753-715 BC)

·      Numa  715-673

·      Tullius Hostilius  673-642

·      Ancus Martius  642-617

·      Lucius Tarquinius Priscus   616-579

·      Servius Tullius   578-535

·      Lucius Tarquinius Superbus    534-510 BC

 

Term
TARQUIN KINGS (616-509 BC)
Definition
Term
REPUBLIC (509-31 BC)
Definition

 

·      literally from latin a public matter – res publica

·      two annually elected consuls

·      not only relies on senate or assemblied but also

·      first counsel of rome (LUCIUS JUNIUS brutus)

 

 

Term
CLOACA MAXIMA
Definition

 

·      ANCUS MARTIUS

·      = Big Drain

 

Term
CAPITOLIUM
Definition

 

ASSOCIATED WITH LUCIUS TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS

·      housed SIBYLLINE BOOKS

·      consulted by th

 

 

Term
SIBYLLINE BOOKS
Definition
 Libri Sibyllini were a collection of oracular utterances, set out inGreek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. Only fragments have survived, the rest being lost or deliberately destroyed
Term
FORUM ROMANUM
Definition

 

FORUM –italian version of gk agora

meeting place, anything public that concerned the people

o   many different kinds of forums

§  forum Romanum

ú  oldest

ú  earliest evidence are the burials with hut urns – latial culture

ú  7th century

ú  post holes for modest huts

ú  path that winds through = SACRED WAY- earliest road/path through forum

 

Term
LAPIS NIGER
Definition

 

ú  #4 in the forum

      laid with black pavement

·      for a long time many ancients associated this with a tombs – romulus?

·      black pavement is called – Lapis Niger – opposite of that is ater, atra = dull – atrium = working room of roman houses

 

Term
LITUUS
Definition

 

·      6th century BC archaic pd.

o   clear reference to a king = rex

o   pottery

o   little figurines with a LITUUS (curved stick) used by Augurs to dilineate the field of vision

o   connection to ritual activity and Etruscan presence

o   / latin presence in forum 

 

Term
TEMPLE OF VESTA
Definition

 

·      remains of a circular temple of Vesta = goddess of the hearth

·      sacred fire of the city of rome

·      middle of the 6th c BC in earliest form

·      no cult statue

·      job of vestule virgins to protect fire

·      circular plan quite different

·      imitation of same iron age

·      where some of romes sacrd objects were house including:

o   Palladium

o   also home to important set of gods

§  Penates (uniquely roman idea/concept)

§  household gods associated with penus associated with storeroom (pantry)

§  every individual roman who owned a home…had their own penates

§  bronze figurine

·      no man was allowed to enter temple except for one

o   head priest – PONTIFEX MAXIMUS

 

Term
PALLADIUM
Definition

a statue which protected Troy and later Rome

  • By analogy, a "palladium" is anything believed to provide protection or safety; a safeguard
  • housed in temple of vesta
  • Palladium" especially signified the wooden statue (xoanon) of Pallas Athena that Odysseus and Diomedes stole from the citadel of Troy and which was later taken to the future site of Rome by Aeneas. The Roman story is related in Virgil'sAeneid and other works.

Term
PENATES
Definition

uniquely roman idea/concept in temple of vesta

 the cult of the ancestral gods of the Roman people, originating in Lavinium,[4] where they were also closely linked with Vesta. According to one strand of tradition pertaining to the public Penates, they were identified as the sacred objects rescued by Aeneas from Troy and carried by him to Italy;[5] they, or rival duplicates, were eventually housed in the Temple of Vesta in the forum. Thus the Penates, unlike the localized Lares, are portable deities

Term
CAESAREA - 2
Definition

 

Herods harbour at Caesarea in Palestine

·      Caesarea: ballast stone marking roman shipwreck site

·      SOUNDING – lead found at Caesarea (weight)

greek and roman sounding weights in the Mediterranean world: 

 

Term
SOUNDING WEIGHT
Definition

 

·      greek and roman sounding weights in the Mediterranean world: approximate distribution

·      sounding weight  important until the creation of the compass

·      Alexander great interest in exploring the sea

 

pharaohs, philosophers, humble maritimers wondered about the sea

bell shaped sounding weight

·      byzantine lead sounding-weights from sea near Haifa

·      facilitated navigation by providing depth and compostion of sea floor

·      continued in use well into the 20th century

 

book of acts gives best account of use of sound weight – to determine if ship is approaching shallow water

 

Term
MARK TWAIN
Definition
Term
ARISTOTLE
Definition
Term
STRATON OF LAMPSACUS
Definition
Term
PILLARS OF HERCULES
Definition
Term
WHEN AND WHY DID ANCIENT SAILORS (OR SCIENTISTS UTILIZE LEAD SOUNDING WEIGHTS?
Definition

facilitated navigation by providing depth and composition of sea floor

sight of land made difficult because lack of mountains

 

 

Term
WHY HASN'T UTILIZATION OF SOUNDING WEIGHTS APPEARED IN ARTISTIC DEPICTIONS?
Definition
Term
WHAT THE BASIC FEATURES COMMON TO 180 KNOWN EXAMPLES OF SOUNDING WEIGHTS?
Definition
Term
WHAT ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXTS DO MOST OF THESE SOUNDING WEIGHTS COME FROM?
Definition
book of acts
Term
COLONIA
Definition

 

latin word = word colony = as a means of settling military discharged veterans; civic/civilian phenomenon

·      given a plot of land in a new colonia

 

Term
CASTRUM
Definition

 

= any military camp; in some colonies where there was a garrison or very specific military component..castrum was at heart of settlement

·      in some cases evolved into a forum

·      often has an orthoganal plan (right angles)

·      roman cities (2 streets)

o   cardo

o   decumanus

o   where they intersect is the castrum

 

Term
COSA (273 BC)
Definition

 

location refounded to beef up population – originally a colonia

PLAN OF COSA

    Forum (buildings)

o   Curia = senate house #3

o   comitium = assembly

o   basilica = equivalent to gk stoa #5

§  like a kings hall/ public covered space

§  usually two story

§  always colonnaded

§  almost surely had timber roofs

§  increasingly popular in roman architecture

o   #9 capitolium

§  sort of follows Etrusco-Italic design

·      excavated by the American academy in rome, 30’s

·      remains of harbor piers along the coast outside the ancient site of Cosa

 

Term
CURIA
Definition
roman senate house in reference to cosa
Term
COMITIUM
Definition
center of all political activity - assembly
Term
BASILICA
Definition

 

basilica = equivalent to gk stoa #5

like a kings hall/ public covered space

usually two story

  always colonnaded

almost surely had timber roofs

increasingly popular in roman architecture

 

Term
CAPITOLIUM
Definition
a temple dedicated to the main roman gods
Term
POZZOLANA
Definition

 

o   among the earliest examples of HYDRAULIC CONCRETE

§  hydraulic concrete – will dry in water!

§  Unique property of volcanic stone = POZZOLANA

§  which comes from naples area PUTEOLI(LATIN) à POZZUOLI (ITALIAN)

§  could pour into the sea and could harden and set under the water

§  but would continue to get harder and harder over time

 

Term
POZZUOLI (ANCIENT PUTEOLI)
Definition

 

§  POZZOLANA

§  which comes from naples area PUTEOLI(LATIN) à POZZUOLI (ITALIAN)

§  could pour into the sea and could harden and set under the water

 

Term
OPUS INCERTUM
Definition
 (200-80 BC) earliest bed of concrete facing is made of fist sized stones of tufa.. uncertain
Term
OPUS RETICULATUM
Definition

 

·      like net and evenly set/look tidier .. tufa..put pointed end into the wall so more surface area covered

o   reticulate comes from reticulatum (latin) fishnet

 

Term
OPUS LATERICIUM
Definition

 

·      – brickwork! Brick faced concrete – 2nd and 3rd century 

 

Term
OPUS MIXTUM
Definition

 

·      – mixed work – different kinds of bricks – latest 3rd and 4th centuries

o   can be used to date the walls for phases and additions

 

Term
TEMPLE OF FORTUNA AT PRAENESTE
Definition

 

·      150 BC?

·      architecture becomes something to be experienced

·      temple sites associated with ASKLEPIOS

o   to latin he becomes aesculapius

o   god of healing

·      moving through a building is part of the healing process!! IMPORTANTE

·      plan of this is triangular

·      there is an apex and you have to get there

·      used a series of terraces

·      built on superimposed levels

·      unique: interest in surprise architecture – built a whole series of ramps

·      physically and emotionally move a visitor

·      at the very back an oracular shrine – temple of fortuna

·      made of concrete

·      Barberini gained most control of this estate

 

Term
BARBERINI MOSAIC
Definition

 

·      BARBERINI mosaic – inside an apse in fortunus

o   pretty badly damaged during WWII

o   large floor mosaic

o   overall theme – NILOTIC scene – scene that shows nile in flood

o   interest in classifying – meant to instruct and educate

 

Term
NILOTIC
Definition

 

o   NILOTIC scene – scene that shows nile in flood

o   interest in classifying – meant to instruct and educate

 

Term
ARRINGATORE -4
Definition

 

‘ Haranguer’

·      persuading them/addressing them through oratory

·      associated with politicians/ lawyers

·      his gesture – addressing

·      bronze statue

·      found in : from lake Trasimene (near Perugia)

·      150-100 BC

·      how he got there…we don’t know

·      bronze sculpture left on land was melted down for other use

·      wears a certain kind of toga = toga exigua = short toga (skimpy)

o   goes out of style around first century BC

o   helps date sculpture

·      effort to depict a roman

o   boots – laced up

o   caligae à Caligula (ul makes it diminutive) little boots

·      Cato the elder – writer who said too much of anything greek would corrupt  (mos maiorum) = tradition of greater people (ancestral tradition) = way of doing things/ way of ancestars

o   wearing a gold ring – citizenry

o   on toga there is a hem – means looking at toga praetexta which says he is an elected official – magistrate

o   inscribed hem – written in Etruscan – tells us his name is Aulus Metellus and he has paid a fine as a mean of attoning for some legal case

o   embraced costume of roman citizen, yet he is truscan

 

Term
LAKE TRASIMENE
Definition
the arringatore was found here (150-100) near Perugia...how it got here is unknown
Term
TOGA EXIGUA
Definition

 

·      wears a certain kind of toga = toga exigua = short toga (skimpy)

o   goes out of style around first century BC

o   helps date sculpture

 

Term
TOGA PRAETEXTA
Definition

 

o   on toga there is a hem – means looking at toga praetexta which says he is an elected official – magistrate

 

Term
VERISM
Definition

 

·      which basically means truth

exploring in old age, death, suffering and torture

Hellenistic gk sculpture – interest in emotion/ portraiture / realism

roman go for portraiture/ realism

“warts and all” approach to sculpture

 

Term
IMAGINES
Definition
Term
LUCIUS CORNELIUS SULLA
Definition

 

·      brilliant general

·      appointed dictator over 3 year period of 82-79 B

·      time of great political factions and civil wars in rome

·      archaeological remains attest that individuals were continually engaged in sponsoring these form

·      sometimes called himself “felix”  not only happy but lucky

 

Term
TRIUMVERATE
Definition

 

·      part of a political creation called Triumverate = triumvir – 3..vir-man…political alliance of 3 men

·      50 BC – Caesar, Pompey, Crassus

·      make up first triumerate

 

Term
GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR
Definition

 

·      interest in portraiture and verism

·      part of a political creation called Triumverate = triumvir – 3..vir-man…political alliance of 3 men

·      50 BC – Caesar, Pompey, Crassus

·      make up first triumerate

·      59-53 BC

·      Crassus gets military campaign in parathia and dies

·      Pompeii : know

 

Term
FORUM IULIUM
Definition

 

forum of Julius Caesar

·      first in a series built by

·      becomes prototype for future forums

·      temple dedicated to venus genetrix – the life giver ancestral…my ancestral is divine

 

Term
TEMPLE OF VENUS GENETRIX
Definition

 

·      temple dedicated to venus genetrix – the life giver ancestral…my ancestral is divine

 

Term
OCTAVIAN (B.63 BC-D. AD 14)
Definition

 

AUGUSTUS

·      romes first emperor

·      63 BC – AD 14

·      at age of 17 Octavian was adopted by Caesar as his heir

·      second triumverate

o   antony, Octavian, and lepedis

·      31 BC – naval battle off north western Greece (Actium)

o   Antony took off back to Egypt with Cleopatra and committed suiced

o   Octavian goes back and celebrates and takes on name of Augustus = ‘Revered one’

·      task is to restore the republic – at least appearance

·      becomes consul for every year for 10 years and maintain structure

·      restored civic services

·      real nack for organization

·      brought about a period of peace and calm

·      lots of references to PAX AUGUSTANA – first peace that italy has enjoyed in probably 100 years.

·      brilliant prapogandus

 

Term
BATTLE OF ACTIUM (31 BC)
Definition

 

·      31 BC – naval battle off north western Greece (Actium)

o   Antony took off back to Egypt with Cleopatra and committed suiced

o   Octavian goes back and celebrates and takes on name of Augustus = ‘Revered one’

·      task is to restore the republic – at least appearance

·      becomes consul for every year for 10 years and maintain structure

·      restored civic services

·      real nack for organization

·      brought about a period of peace and calm

·      lots of references to PAX AUGUSTANA – first peace that italy has enjoyed in probably 100 years.

brilliant prapogandus

 

Term
AUGUSTUS
Definition

 

·      romes first emperor

·      63 BC – AD 14

·      at age of 17 Octavian was adopted by Caesar as his heir

·      second triumverate

o   antony, Octavian, and lepedis

·      31 BC – naval battle off north western Greece (Actium)

o   Antony took off back to Egypt with Cleopatra and committed suiced

o   Octavian goes back and celebrates and takes on name of Augustus = ‘Revered one’

·      task is to restore the republic – at least appearance

·      becomes consul for every year for 10 years and maintain structure

·      restored civic services

·      real nack for organization

·      brought about a period of peace and calm

·      lots of references to PAX AUGUSTANA – first peace that italy has enjoyed in probably 100 years.

·      brilliant prapogandus

 

Term
PAX AUGUSTANA
Definition

 

·      task is to restore the republic – at least appearance

·      becomes consul for every year for 10 years and maintain structure

·      restored civic services

·      real nack for organization

·      brought about a period of peace and calm

·      lots of references to PAX AUGUSTANA – first peace that italy has enjoyed in probably 100 years.

 

Term
PRIMA PORTA
Definition

 

·      comes from site prima porta

·      site of a villa inhabited by augustus wife name livia

·      as far as we know it was not a public statue

·      some traces of paint

·      overall theme: augustus in his military role bc of his military garb

·      in control and seems to be addressing

·      based off of “doryphoros” = spear bearer  by Polykleitos,440 BC

o   canon – serve as the standard of classical sculpture

·      seems to epitomize heroic youth ideals

·      divine references: got from Caesar

·      little kid has wings = he is cupid

·      military man but also associated with divine

·      carass

o   return of the military s

 

Term
DORYPHOROS
Definition

 

·      overall theme: augustus in his military role bc of his military garb

·      in control and seems to be addressing

·      based off of “doryphoros” = spear bearer  by Polykleitos,440 BC

o   canon – serve as the standard of classical sculpture

 

Term
POLYKLEITOS
Definition

 

·      based off of “doryphoros” = spear bearer  by Polykleitos,440 BC

o   canon – serve as the standard of classical sculpture

·      seems to epitomize heroic youth ideals

·      divine references: got from Caesar

·      little kid has wings = he is cupid

·      military man but also associated with divine

 

Term
FORUM OF AUGUSTUS
Definition
Term
Definition