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APUSH
final
64
History
01/13/2010

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Term
Puritans
Definition
Followers and believers in the doctrines of Jean Calvin, settled in the Massachusetts bay colony
Term
Navigation Acts
Definition
Laws passed by parliament to regulate and restrain trade in the colonies, one of the causes of the revolutionary war
Term
Roger Williams
Definition
established the principle of freedom of religion, and founded Rhone Island
Term
James Oglethorpe
Definition
A British general that founded Georgia. He wanted to resettle Britain’s poor and debtors in prison in the new world. He landed in Charleston, SC and settled near present day Savannah
Term
John Winthrop
Definition
Obtained a royal charter along with a group of wealthy puritans for King Charles for the Massachusetts Bay colony. Led a group of puritans to the new world in 1630. Most famous for “city upon a hill” sermon, puritans were supposed to create a holy community.
Term
John Rolfe
Definition
- An early English settler that is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in Virginia, also the husband of Pocahontas.
Term
Maryland
Definition
Haven for Catholics, second plantation colony founded in1634 by Lord Baltimore. Prospered with tobacco like Virginia. Passed act of toleration with granted toleration to all Christians.
Term
Mercantilism
Definition
economic theory that holds the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of capital, geographic basis for triangular trade, British economic policy guided by mercantilism
Term
The Great Awakening
Definition
widespread movement swept the colonies and liberalized religion with class divisions
Term
Pontiac’s Rebellion
Definition
Most violent outbreak between Britain and Native Americans, Pontiac wanted to drive Britain out of Ohio country
Term
Republican Motherhood
Definition
political education, participation, protector of virtue
Term
Boston Massacre
Definition
First violence between Great Britain and America
Term
Lexington & Concord
Definition
The first two military conflicts of the revolutionary war, “shot hear around the world”
Term
Common Sense
Definition
in January 1776 as a call to arms for the colonists
Term
Saratoga
Definition
Victory at Saratoga brought France into war as a formal ally of America, was a turning point in revolution
Term
Articles of Confederation
Definition
Articles denied national power to tax and commerce, a decentralized government with limited powers
Term
The Northwest Ordinance of 1785 & 1787
Definition
developed procedures for creating new states
Term
Shays’ Rebellion
Definition
convinced many states that strong federal government was needed
Term
The Federalist Papers
Definition
created to persuade New York to approve the constitution
Term
The Great Compromise
Definition
compromise the Virginia and New Jersey plans by creating a bicameral leg
Term
Alexander Hamilton and his economic plan
Definition
included provisions for a national tariff, provisions for a national bank, assumption of the stats debts, and funding the national debt
Term
Revolution of 1800
Definition
Thomas Jefferson won the presidential election, called it a revolution because america was returning to the original ideal and values during the American revolution
Term
Louisiana Purchase
Definition
Robert Livingston and James Monre went to Paris to get as much land for 10 million, signed a treaty in 1830 giving Louisiana to America for 15 million.
Term
Aaron Burr
Definition
dropped from jackson’s cabninet then joined a group of extreme Federalists who plotted the secession of New England and New York; Alexander Hamilton uncovered the plot. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and Hamilton accepted. Hamilton refused to shoot and he was shot and killed by Burr
Term
Sacajawea
Definition
a Shoshoni Indian that helped Lewis and Clark explore part of the Louisiana Purchase, and translated for them
Term
War Hawks
Definition
They were Democratic-Republicans who supported the war and felt that the country had to assert American rights to the world. They wanted to invade Canada, the Indians' stronghold, because the Indians were being armed by the British to attack the settlers
Term
The American System
Definition
plan for profitable home market, included a strong banking system, to provide easy and abundant credit, a protective tariff, behind which eastern manufacturing would flourish and a network of roads and canals.
Term
Marbury vs. Madison
Definition
James Madison, the new secretary of state, had cut judge Marbury's salary; Marbury sued James Madison for his pay; Marbury ended up getting his pay but the decision showed that the Supreme Court had the final authority in determining the meaning of the Constitution.
Term
Hartford Convention
Definition
complained about the war of 1812, led to the fall of the federalist party, demanded financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade from embargos, constitutional amendments requiring a 2/3 vote in Congress before an embargo could be imposed, new states admitted, or war declared, the abolition of slavery, that a President could only serve 1 term, the abolition of the 3/5 clause, the prohibition of the election of 2 successive Presidents from the same state.
Term
Fletcher vs. Peck
Definition
Georgia legislature granted 35 million acres to private speculators; the next legislature cancelled the bribery-induced transaction. John Marshall let the state give the acres to the private speculators calling it a contract and constitutional. The decision protected property rights against popular pressures.
Term
McCulloch vs. Maryland
Definition
- involved an attempt by the state of Maryland to destroy a branch of the Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on the Bank's notes. John Marshall declared the U.S. Bank constitutional by invoking the Hamiltonian doctrine of implied powers. He strengthened federal authority and slapped at state infringements when he denied the right of Maryland to tax the Bank.
Term
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
Definition
Dartmouth College was given a charter by King George III but New Hampshire wanted to take it away. John Marshall ruled in favor of the college.
Term
Missouri Compromise
Definition
Congress forbade slavery in the remaining territories in the Louisiana Territory north of the line of 36° 30', except for Missouri.
Term
Impressments
Definition
making men serve in the army by force
Term
Eli Whitney
Definition
built the first cotton gin in 1793, came up with the idea of machines making each part of the musket so that every part of the musket would be the same. The principle of interchangeable parts caught on by 1850 and it became the basis for mass-production.
Term
the development of cotton in the South
Definition
Because of the cotton gin, the South's production of cotton greatly increased and the demand for cotton revived the demand for slavery, The South controlled Britain because 75% of Britain's cotton came from the South.
Term
cotton gin
Definition
The cotton gin was much more effective at separating the cotton seed from the cotton fiber than using slaves. It affected not only America, but the rest of the world.
Term
Bank of the United States
Definition
The Bank of the United States was a private institution, accountable not to the people, but to its elite circle of investors.
Term
Nicholas Biddle
Definition
the president of the Bank of the United States, held an immense and possibly unconstitutional amount of power over the nation's financial affairs, went against Andrew Jackson in the bank war
Term
Tariff of 1828 and its effects
Definition
called the "Black Tariff" or the "Tariff of Abominations"; also called the "Yankee Tariff". It was hated by Southerners because it was an extremely high tariff and they felt it discriminated against them. The South was having economic struggles and the tariff was a scapegoat.
Term
Martin van Buren
Definition
Martin Van Buren was Andrew Jackson's choice as his successor in the election of 1836.
Term
spoils system
Definition
When the Democrats rose to power in the White House, they replaced most of the people in offices with their own people (the common man). These people were illiterate and incompetent. This system of rewarding political supporters with jobs in the government was known as the "spoils system."
Term
Mormonism
Definition
- Joseph Smith- formed the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) in 1830 when he deciphered the Book of Mormon from some golden plates given to him by an angel; led the Mormons to Illinois. After Joseph Smith was killed 1844, Brigham Young led the Mormons to Utah to avoid persecution.
Term
South Carolina Exposition
Definition
made by John C. Calhoun, was published in 1828. It was a pamphlet that denounced the Tariff of 1828 as unjust and unconstitutional.
Term
Whig party
Definition
The Whigs were conservatives who supported government programs, reforms, and public schools. They called for internal improvements like canals, railroads, and telegraph lines. The Whigs claimed to be defenders of the common man and declared the Democrats the party of corruption. They supported the natural harmony of society and the value of community. They favored a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, and moral reforms, such as the prohibition of liquor and the abolition of slavery.
Term
“corrupt bargain”
Definition
There were 4 main "Republican" candidates in the election of 1824: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, and Henry Clay. No candidate won the majority of the electoral votes, so, according to the Constitution, the House of Representatives had to choose the winner. Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, was thus eliminated although he did have much say in who became president. Clay convinced the House to elect John Quincy Adams as president. Adams agreed to make Clay the Secretary of State for getting him into office. Much of the public felt that a "corrupt bargain" had taken place because Andrew Jackson had received the popular vote.
Term
Transcendentalism
Definition
The transcendentalists rejected the theory that all knowledge comes to the mind through the senses. Truth, rather, transcends the senses and can't be found just by observation. Associated traits included self-reliance, self-culture, and self-discipline.
Term
Seneca Fall Convention
Definition
Feminists met at Seneca Falls, New York in a Woman's Rights Convention in 1848 to rewrite the Declaration of Independence to include women.
Term
Frederick Douglass
Definition
lectured widely for abolitionism; looked to politics to end slavery.
Term
William Lloyd Garrison
Definition
wrote a militantly anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator; publicly burned a copy of the Constitution
Term
Manifest Destiny
Definition
- In the 1840s and 1850s, many Americans felt that God had "manifestly" destined the American people to spread their democratic institutions over the entire continent and over South America as well. Democrats strongly supported the idea of Manifest Destiny.
Term
John L. O’Sullivan
Definition
- used the term "Manifest Destiny" in 1845 to promote the annexation of Texas and the Oregon Country to the United States
Term
Sam Houston
Definition
commander in chief for Texas
Term
James K. Polk
Definition
James K. Polk was the Speaker of the House of Representatives for four years and governor of Tennessee for two terms, ran for president in the Democratic Party in 1844 against Henry Clay. He had 4 main goals in his presidency..
o 1. A lower tariff. Robert J. Walker- Secretary of Treasury to James Polk; devised the Walker Tariff of 1846, a tariff-for-revenue bill that reduced the rates of the Tariff of 1842 from 32% to 25%.
o 2. The second goal of Polk was to restore the independent treasury, which the Whigs dropped in 1841 because the Whigs won the presidency.
o 3./4. The third and fourth goals of Polk were the acquisition of California and the settlement of the Oregon dispute without violence. Britain presented Polk with the Oregon Country up to 490. The offer was approved and a reasonable compromise was reached without a shot fired.
Term
Texas and its annexation
Definition
The Texans wanted to become a state in the United States but the northerners did not want them to because of the issue of slavery. Admitting Texas would mean one more slave state. Texas became a leading issue in the presidential campaign of 1844. The Democrats were pro-expansion and were for annexing Texas. President Tyler signed a resolution in 1845 that invited Texas to become the 28th state in America.
Term
Winfield S. Scott
Definition
succeeded in battling his way up to Mexico City by September 1847; 1st choice of President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union army in the Civil War, candidate for presidency in the Whig party in election of 1852
Term
Wilmot Proviso
Definition
one of the major events leading to the Civil War, would have banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War or in the future
Term
the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Definition
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gave Texas to America and yielded the area stretching westward to Oregon and the ocean, including California, for a cost of $15 million.
Term
Free Soil Party
Definition
It was formed by antislavery men of the North, who didn't trust Cass or Taylor. They supported federal aid for internal improvements. They argued that with slavery, wage labor would wither away and with it, the chance for the American worker to own property.
Term
Compromise of 1850
Definition
California was admitted as a free state and the territories of New Mexico and Utah were open to slavery on the basis of popular sovereignty. Thus, the Senate was unbalanced in favor of the North.
Term
fire-eaters
Definition
a group of extremist pro-slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation, which became known as the Confederate States of America.
Term
Gadsden Purchase
Definition
- an area of Mexico from Santa Anna for which the transcontinental railroad would pass. Gadsden negotiated a treaty in 1853 and the Gadsden Purchase area was ceded to the United States for $10 million.
Term
Know-Nothing Party
Definition
was a nativist American political movement of the 1840s and 1850s. It was empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants
Term
Kansas Nebraska Act
Definition
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries