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Appendicular Skeleton
BI 301L: Anatomy and Physiology (Portland State University)
79
Anatomy
10/09/2011

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Cards

Term
Head of femur
Definition

[image]

 

 The head is globular and forms rather more than a hemisphere, is directed upward, medialward, and a little forward, the greater part of its convexity being above and in front.

Its surface is smooth, coated with cartilage in the fresh state, except over an ovoid depression, the fovea capitis femoris, 

 

Term
Fovea capitis
Definition

[image] FLR?

situated a little below and behind the center of the head, and gives attachment to the ligament of head of femur.

Term
Neck of femur
Definition

[image]

The femur neck or neck of the femur is a flattened pyramidal process of bone, connecting the femoral head with the femoral shaft, and forming with the latter a wide angle opening medialward.

Term
Pectineal line of femur
Definition

[image]

a ridge running down the posterior surface of the shaft of the femur from the lesser trochanter to which the pectineus muscle attaches; continuous superiorly with intertrochanteric line and merges inferiorly with the spiral line of the femur to form the medial lip of the linea aspera.

Term
Gluteal tuberosity of femur
Definition

[image]

gives attachment to part of the Glutæus maximus: its upper part is often elongated into a roughened crest

[image][image][image][image]

Term
Intertrochanteric crest of femur
Definition

[image]

a bony ridge located on the posterior side of the head of the femur, stretching obliquely downward and medially from the summit of the greater trochanter to the lesser trochanter.

 

 

Term
Greater trochanter
Definition

[image]

a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence

 

The lateral surface, quadrilateral in form, is broad, rough, convex, and marked by a diagonal impression, which extends from the postero-superior to the antero-inferior angle, and serves for the insertion of the tendon of the gluteus medius.

Above the impression is a triangular surface, sometimes rough for part of the tendon of the same muscle, sometimes smooth for the interposition of a bursa between the tendon and the bone. Below and behind the diagonal impression is a smooth, triangular surface, over which the tendon of the gluteus maximus plays, a bursa being interposed.

The medial surface, of much less extent than the lateral, presents at its base a deep depression, the trochanteric fossa (digital fossa), for the insertion of the tendon of the obturator externus, and above and in front of this an impression for the insertion of the obturator internus and superior and inferior gemellus muscles.

The superior border is free; it is thick and irregular, and marked near the center by an impression for the insertion of the piriformis.

The inferior border corresponds to the line of junction of the base of the trochanter with the lateral surface of the body; it is marked by a rough, prominent, slightly curved ridge, which gives origin to the upper part of thevastus lateralis.

The anterior border is prominent and somewhat irregular; it affords insertion at its lateral part to the glutæus minimus.

The posterior border is very prominent and appears as a free, rounded edge, which bounds the back part of the trochanteric fossa.

Term
Lesser trochanter
Definition

[image]

The red line

conical eminence, which varies in size in different subjects

 

ough, and gives insertion to the tendon of the Psoas major and the Iliacus.

Term
Linea aspera
Definition

[image] 6?

a prominent longitudinal ridge or crest, on the middle third of the bone, presenting a medial and a lateral lip, and a narrow rough, intermediate line. It is an important insertion point for the adductors and the intermuscular septa that divides the thigh into three compartments. The tension generated by muscle attached to the bones is responsible for the formation of the ridges

Term
Medial condyle of femur
Definition

[image] 5?

one of the two projections on the lower extremity of femur.

Term
Lateral condyle of femur
Definition

[image] 4?

one of the two projections on the lower extremity of femur. It is the more prominent and is the broader both in its antero-posterior and transverse diameters.

Term
Medial epicondyle of femur
Definition

[image] 7?

 bony protrusion located on the medial side of the bone's distal end.

 

Term
Laterial epicondyle of femur
Definition

[image] 6?

gives attachment to the fibular collateral ligament of the knee-joint. Directly below it is a small depression from which a smooth well-marked groove curves obliquely upward and backward to the posterior extremity

Term
Patella
Definition

[image]

Pointing away from self, the side to which it rolls n' rests identifies it.

is a thick, circular-triangular bone which articulates with the femur and covers and protects the anterior articular surface of the knee joint

[image][image][image][image]

Term
Tibia
Definition

[image]

The larger, medial sided bone

he larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee, connects the knee with the ankle bones

Term
Lateral condyle of tibia
Definition

[image]G?

The ______ is the lateral portion of the upper extremity of tibia.

It serves as the insertion for the Biceps femoris muscle.

 

Term
Medial condyle of tibia
Definition

[image] I?

the medial portion of the upper extremity of tibia.

It is the site of insertion for the Semimembranosus muscle.

 

Term
Anterior crest of tibia
Definition
[image]K?
Term
Medial malleolus
Definition

[image]M?

s the bony prominence on each side of the ankle.

Term
Fibula
Definition

[image]

The lesser bone (lateral to the greater bone) of the lower leg.

a bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones, and, in proportion to its length, the most slender of all the long bones. Its upper extremity is small, placed toward the back of the head of the tibia, below the level of the knee-joint, and excluded from the formation of this joint. Its lower extremity inclines a little forward, so as to be on a plane anterior to that of the upper end; it projects below the tibia, and forms the lateral part of the ankle-joint.

Term
Head of fibula
Definition

[image]F?

an irregular quadrate form, presenting above a flattened articular surface, directed upward, forward, and medialward, for articulation with a corresponding surface on the lateral condyle of the tibia. On the lateral side is a thick and rough prominence continued behind into a pointed eminence, the apex (styloid process), which projects upward from the posterior part of the head.

The prominence, at its upper and lateral part, gives attachment to the tendon of the Biceps femoris and to the fibular collateral ligament of the knee-joint, the ligament dividing the tendon into two parts. The remaining part of the circumference of the head is rough, for the attachment of muscles and ligaments. It presents in front a tubercle for the origin of the upper and anterior fibers of the Peronæus longus, and a surface for the attachment of the anterior ligament of the head; and behind, another tubercle, for the attachment of the posterior ligament of the head and the origin of the upper fibers of the Soleus.

Term
Lateral malleolus
Definition

[image]A?

the prominence on the outer side of the ankle, formed by the lower end of the fibula.

Term
Podials
Definition
describes the bones of hands (carpals) and feet (tarsals) that are most proximal to the bones of the arms and legs, respectively. 
Term
Carpals
Definition

[image]

 the sole cluster of bones in the wrist between the radius and ulna and the metacarpus.

Term
Tarsals
Definition

[image]

a cluster of articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg

Term
Talus
Definition

[image]A?

forms the lower part of the ankle joint through its articulations with the lateral andmedial malleoli of the two bones of the lower leg, the tibia and fibula

Term
Calcaneous
Definition

[image]K?

a bone of the tarsus of the foot which constitute the heel

Term
Metapodials
Definition

elongate bones of the hand (metacarpals) and feet (metatarsals) that connect the digits to the centers. In humans, five are present in each hand and foot.

Term
Metacarpals
Definition

[image]b?

the intermediate part of the hand skeleton that is located between the phalanges (bones of the fingers) proximally and the carpus which forms the connection to theforearm.

Term
Metatarsals
Definition

[image]b?

a group of five long bones in the foot located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes.

Term
MT 1 metatarsal
Definition

[image]8?

bone of the big toe

Term

Proximal phalanx (s)

Proximal phalanges (p)

Definition

[image][image]

longest bones of c?

 

Term

Distal phalanx (s)

Distal Phalanges (p)

Definition

[image][image]

Shortest bones of c?

Term
Transverse arche of foot
Definition

[image]

3 to 2?

Term
Longitudinal arch(es) of foot
Definition

[image]

1-to-2 and 1-to-3?

Term
Clavicle
Definition

[image]

 

 

 

 

 

 

a long bone of short length that serves as a strut between the scapula and the sternum. It is the only long bone in body that lies horizontally. It makes up part of the shoulder and the pectoral girdle and is palpable in all people, and, in people who have less fat in this region, the location of the bone is clearly visible as it creates a bulge in the skin.

Flat side up!

 

Term
Scapula
Definition

[image]

The entire bones is named ______?

is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone)

forms the posterior (back) located part of the shoulder girdle. In humans, it is a flat bone, roughly triangular in shape, placed on a posterolateral aspect of the thoracic cage.

Term
Medial(or vertebral) border of scapula
Definition

[image]

The line from 6 to 2 can be identified as the _____?

s the longest of the three borders, and extends from the medial to the inferior angle.

Term
Lateral(or axillary) border of scapula
Definition

[image]

The line from 6 to 11 can be identified as the ____?

is the thickest of the three borders of the scapula.

It begins above at the lower margin of the glenoid cavity, and inclines obliquely downward and backward to the inferior angle.

Immediately below the glenoid cavity is a rough impression, the infraglenoid tuberosity, about 2.5 cm. in length, which gives origin to the long head of the Triceps brachii; in front of this is a longitudinal groove, which extends as far as the lower third of this border, and affords origin to part of the Subscapularis.

The inferior third is thin and sharp, and serves for the attachment of a few fibers of the Teres major behind, and of the Subscapularis in front.

Term
Superior border of scapula
Definition

[image]

The ____ closely associated with 3 can be identified as the _____?

is the shortest and thinnest

it is concave, and extends from the medial angle to the base of the coracoid process.

At its lateral part is a deep, semicircular notch, the scapular notch, formed partly by the base of the coracoid process.

This notch is converted into a foramen by the superior transverse ligament, and serves for the passage of the suprascapular nerve; sometimes the ligament is ossified.

The adjacent part of the superior border affords attachment to the Omohyoideus.

Term
Inferior angle of scapula
Definition

[image]

6 could be identified as the convergence of the ____.

hick and rough, is formed by the union of the vertebral and axillary borders; its dorsal surface affords attachment to the Teres major and frequently to a few fibers of theLatissimus dorsi.

Term
Spine of scapula
Definition

[image]b?

a prominent plate of bone, which crosses obliquely the medial four-fifths of the scapula at its upper part, and separates the supra- from the infraspinatous fossa.

It begins at the vertical border by a smooth, triangular area over which the tendon of insertion of the lower part of the Trapezius glides, and, gradually becoming more elevated, ends in the acromion, which overhangs the shoulder-joint.

Term
Acromion process
Definition

[image]a?

is an anatomical feature on the shoulder blade (scapula), together with the coracoid process extending laterally over the shoulder joint.

Term
Coracoid process
Definition

[image]9?

a small hook-like structure on the lateral edge of the superior anterior portion of the scapula. Pointing laterally forward, it, together with the acromion, serves to stabilize the shoulder joint. It is palpable in the deltopectoral groove between the deltoid and pectoralis major muscles.

Term
Supraspinous fossa
Definition

[image]

posterior aspect of the scapula is smaller than the infraspinatous fossa, concave, smooth, and broader at its vertebral than at its humeral end. Its medial two-thirds give origin to the Supraspinatus.

Term
Infraspinatous fossa
Definition

[image]

The medial two-thirds of the ______ give origin to the Infraspinatus; the lateral third is covered by this muscle.

 

Term
Subscapular fossa
Definition

[image]

The area partially marked with blue is ______?

the costal or ventral surface of the scapula presents a broad concavity

It provides an attachment for the subscapularis muscle.

 

Term
Glenoid fossa (or cavity)
Definition

[image]d(blue area)?

a shallow pyriform, articular surface, which is located on the lateral angle of the scapula. It is directed laterally and forward and articulates with the head of the humerus; it is broader below than above and its vertical diameter is the longest.

Term
Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
Definition

[image]14?

region of the scapula to which the long head of the biceps brachii muscle attaches.

Term
Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula
Definition

[image]

10?

the part of the scapula to which the long head of the triceps brachii attaches.

Term
Humerus
Definition

[image]

s a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow

Term
Head of humerus
Definition

[image]

2?

 large rounded head joined to the body by a constricted portion called the neck, and two eminences, the greater and lesser tubercles.

Term
Greater tubercle of humerus
Definition

[image]

1?

situated lateral to the head of the humerus and posteriolateral to the lesser tubercle.

Its upper surface is rounded and marked by three flat impressions.

  • the highest of these gives ("superior facet") insertion to the Supraspinatus
  • the middle ("middle facet") to the Infraspinatus.
  • the lowest one ("inferior facet"), and the body of the bone for about 2.5 cm. below it, to the Teres minor.
Term
Lesser tubercle of humerus
Definition

[image]

3?

it is situated in front, and is directed medially and anteriorly.

Above and in front it presents an impression for the insertion of the tendon of the Subscapularis.

Term
Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Definition

[image]

 

The lower part of the lateral border of the body of the humerus forms a prominent, rough margin, a little curved from behind forward,

presents an anterior lip for the origin of the Brachioradialis above, and Extensor carpi radialis longus below, a posterior lip for the Triceps brachii, and an intermediate ridge for the attachment of the lateral intermuscular septum.

 

Term
Medial supracondylar ridge of humerus
Definition

[image]

4? it presents an anterior lip for the origins of the Brachialis and Pronator teres, a posterior lip for the medial head of the Triceps brachii, and an intermediate ridge for the attachment of the medial intermuscular septum.

Term
Intertubercular sulcus
Definition

[image]

14?

The tubercles of the humerus are separated from each other by a deep groove, which lodges the long tendon of the Biceps brachii and transmits a branch of the anterior humeral circumflex artery to the shoulder-joint.

Term
Surgical neck of humerus
Definition

[image]

5?

 a constriction below the tubercles of the greater tubercle and lesser tubercle.

It is much more frequently fractured than the anatomical neck of the humerus. A fracture in this area is most likely to cause damage to the axillary nerve. Because the axillary nerve innervates the deltoid muscle, a fracture of the surgical neck often causes weakness in abduction of the arm.

Term
Anatomical neck of humerus
Definition

[image]

Circumferential

 

s obliquely directed, forming an obtuse angle with the body.

It is best marked in the lower half of its circumference; in the upper half it is represented by a narrow groove separating the head from the tubercles.

It affords attachment to the articular capsule of the shoulder-joint, and is perforated by numerous vascular foramina.

Term
Deltoid tuberosity
Definition

[image]

6?

a rough, triangular[1] area on the anterolateral (exterior-front) surface of the middle of the humerus to which the deltoid muscle attaches.

Term
Medial epicondyle of humerus
Definition

[image]

It gives attachment to the ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint, to the Pronator teres, and to a common tendon of origin (the common flexor tendon) of some of the Flexor muscles of the forearm.

The ulnar nerve runs in a groove on the back of this

Term
Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Definition

[image]

a small, tuberculated eminence, curved a little forward, and giving attachment to the radial collateral ligament of the elbow-joint, and to a tendon common to the origin of the Supinator and some of the Extensor muscles.

Term
Olecranon fossa
Definition

[image]

a deep triangular depression on the posterior side of the humerus, superior to the trochlea, in which the summit of the olecranon is received during extension of the forearm.

Term
Coronoid fossa
Definition

[image]

superior to the anterior portion of the trochlea is a small depression,which receives the coronoid process of the ulna during flexion of the forearm. It is directly adjacent to the Radial fossia of the Humerus.

 

Term
Capitulum of humerus
Definition

[image]

10?

It articulates with the cupshaped depression on the head of the radius, and is limited to the front and lower part of the bone.

Term
Trochlea
Definition

[image]

11?

The medial portion of the articular surface of the humerus, presents a deep depression between two well-marked borders; it is convex from before backward, concave from side to side, and occupies the anterior, lower, and posterior parts of the extremity. It is directly inferior to the most prominent anterior humeral fossia, the Coronoid fossia.

It articulates with the ulna.

Term
Radius
Definition

[image]

Do a thumbs up. The superior forearm bone is the ___.

 

ne of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna. It extends from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist and runs parallel to the ulna, which exceeds it in length and size. It is a long bone, prism-shaped and slightly curved longitudinally. The radius articulates with the capitulum of the humerus, the radial notch and the head of the ulna. The corresponding bone in the lower leg is the tibia.

Term
Head of radius
Definition

[image]

1?

has a cylindrical form, and on its upper surface is a shallow cup or fovea for articulation with the capitulum (or capitellum) of the humerus.

The circumference of the head is smooth; it is broad medially where it articulates with the radial notch of the ulna, narrow in the rest of its extent, which is embraced by the annular ligament.

The deepest point in the fovea is not axi-symmetric with the long axis of the radius, creating a cam effect during pronation and supination.

Term
Neck of radius
Definition

[image]

3?

Term
Radial tuberosity
Definition

[image]

4?

Beneath the neck of the radius, on the medial side, is an eminence,  its surface is divided into:

  • posterior, rough portion, for the insertion of the tendon of the biceps brachii.
  • an anterior, smooth portion, on which a bursa is interposed between the tendon and the bone.
Term
Styloid process of radius
Definition

[image]

5?

 a projection of bone on the lateral surface of the distal radius bone. It extends obliquely downward into a strong, conical projection. The tendon of the brachioradialis attaches at its base, and the radial collateral ligament of the wrist attaches at its apex. The lateral surface is marked by a flat groove for the tendons of the Abductor pollicis longus and Extensor pollicis brevis.

Breakage of the radius at the radial styloid is known as a Chauffeur's fracture; it is typically caused by compression of the scaphoid bone of the hand against the styloid.

Term
Ulna
Definition

[image]

one of the two long bones in the forearm, the other being the radius. It is prismatic in form and runs parallel to the radius, which is shorter and smaller. In anatomical position (i.e. when the arms are down at the sides of the body and the palms of the hands face forward) the ulna is located at the side of the forearm closest to the body (the medial side), the side of the little finger. The corresponding bone in the leg is the fibula.

Term
Olecranon process
Definition

[image]

9?

is a large, thick, curved bony eminence of the forearm that projects behind the elbow.

It is situated at the upper (proximal) end of the ulna, one of the two bones in the forearm. When the hand faces forward (supination) the olecranon faces towards the back (posteriorly).

It is bent forward at the summit so as to present a prominent lip which is received into the olecranon fossa of the humerus in extension of the forearm.

Its base is contracted where it joins the body and the narrowest part of the upper end of the ulna.

Its posterior surface, directed backward, is triangular, smooth, subcutaneous, and covered by a bursa.

Its superior surface is of quadrilateral form, marked behind by a rough impression for the insertion of the Triceps brachii; and in front, near the margin, by a slight transverse groove for the attachment of part of the posterior ligament of the elbow-joint.

Its anterior surface is smooth, concave, and forms the upper part of the semilunar notch.

Its borders present continuations of the groove on the margin of the superior surface; they serve for the attachment of ligaments, viz., the back part of the ulnar collateral ligament medially, and the posterior ligament laterally.

From the medial border a part of the Flexor carpi ulnaris arises; while to the lateral border the anconeus muscle is attached.

Term
Coronoid process of ulna
Definition

[image]

4?

is a triangular eminence projecting forward from the upper and front part of the ulna.

Its base is continuous with the body of the bone, and of considerable strength.

Its apex is pointed, slightly curved upward, and in flexion of the forearm is received into the coronoid fossa of the humerus.

Its upper surface is smooth, concave, and forms the lower part of the semilunar notch.

Its antero-inferior surface is concave, and marked by a rough impression for the insertion of the Brachialis muscle. At the junction of this surface with the front of the body is a rough eminence, the tuberosity of the ulna, which gives insertion to a part of the Brachialis; to the lateral border of this tuberosity the oblique cord is attached.

Its lateral surface presents a narrow, oblong, articular depression, the radial notch.

Its medial surface, by its prominent, free margin, serves for the attachment of part of the ulnar collateral ligament. At the front part of this surface is a small rounded eminence for the origin of one head of theFlexor digitorum superficialis muscle; behind the eminence is a depression for part of the origin of the Flexor digitorum profundus muscle; descending from the eminence is a ridge which gives origin to one head of the Pronator teres muscle.

Frequently, the Flexor pollicis longus muscle arises from the lower part of the coronoid process by a rounded bundle of muscular fibers.

The coronoid process of the ulna should not be confused with the similar sounding coracoid process of the scapula

[image][image][image][image]

Term
Trochlear notch
Definition

[image]

1?

a large depression, formed by the olecranon and the coronoid process, and serving for articulation with the trochlea of the humerus.

Term
Radial notch
Definition

[image]

a narrow, oblong, articular depression on the lateral side of the coronoid process; it receives the circumferential articular surface of the head of the radius.

It is concave from before backward, and its prominent extremities serve for the attachment of the annular ligamen.

Term
Ulnar tuberosity
Definition

[image]

9?

At the junction of the antero-inferior surface of the coronoid process with the front of the body is a rough eminence, the ___________.

gives insertion to a part of the Brachialis; to the lateral border of this tuberosity the oblique cord is attached.

 

Term
Head of ulna
Definition

[image]

L?

resents an articular surface, part of which, of an oval or semilunar form, is directed downward, and articulates with the upper surface of the triangular articular disk which separates it from the wrist-joint; the remaining portion, directed lateralward, is narrow, convex, and received into the ulnar notch of the radius

Term
Styloid process of ulna
Definition

[image]

M?

rojects from the medial and back part of the bone; it descends a little lower than the head, and its rounded end affords attachment to the ulnar collateral ligament of thewrist-joint.

The head is separated from the styloid process by a depression for the attachment of the apex of the triangular articular disk, and behind, by a shallow groove for the tendon of the Extensor carpi ulnaris.