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Aphasia
Neural Base of Language and Cognition
24
Communication
01/11/2011

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Cards

Term
Brain Divisions
Definition
Procencephalon (forebrain)
-Telencephalon
-Diencephalon
Mesencephalon (midbrain)

Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
-Metencephalon
-cerebellum
-pons
-Myelencephalon
-medulla
Term
Brodmann's Areas
Definition
Frontal Lobe
-thinking, planning & central executive functions

Parietal Lobe
- somatosensory perception, integration of visual & somatospinal information

Temporal Lobe
-language function amd auditory perception involved with long term memory and emotion

Occipital Lobe
- visual perceptin and processing
Term
Frontal Lobe
Definition
Largest lobe
-occupies 1/3 of the hemisphere

Contains 3 important cortices
-Primary motor cortex
- Premotor cortex
- Prefrontal cortex

Major gyri
-superior
- middle
- inferior
Term
Key Areas of Frontal Lobe
Definition
Premotor and Motor Strip
-initiates voluntary and fine motor movements

Prefrontal cortex

Broca's Speech center
-inportant in translating thought into speech
-word formation center
-when damaged results in inability to speak (aphasia)
Term
Key connections in Frontal Lobe
Definition
Frontothalamic
Frontostriatal
Frontolimbic
Frontocotical
-extensive reciprocal connections of the frontal lobes with sensory association areas
-most notably the inferior parietal lobe and then anterior temporal cortex
Term
Functions of the Frontal Lobe
Definition
Considered our emotional control center and home to our personality

The frontal lobes are involved in:
-motor function - problem solving
-spontananeity - memory
- language - planning
- organization - initiation
- judgment - emotion
- reasoning - selevtive attention
- impulse control - social behavior
- sexual behavior
Term
Functions of the Frontal Lobe
Definition
There are important asymmetrical differences in the frontal lobes
-left: involoved in controlling language
- right: involved in non-verbal abilities

**However, with many people, both lobes are involoved in nerarly all behavior**
Term
Frontal Lobe Pathologies
Definition
Broca's aphasia
-disorder of verbal expression

Paralysis
- loss of simple movements and various body parts

Sequencing
- inability to plann a sequence of complex movements

Preseveration
- persistence of a single thought

Attending
- inability to focus on task

Emotional lability
- mood changes

Poor memory
Term
Frontal Lobe Pathologies
Definition
Broca's aphasia
-disorder of verbal expression

Paralysis
- loss of simple movements and various body parts

Sequencing
- inability to plann a sequence of complex movements

Preseveration
- persistence of a single thought

Attending
- inability to focus on task

Emotional lability
- mood changes

Poor memory
Term
Frontal Lobe Pathologies cont.
Definition
Flat affect
-little spontaneous facial expression

Changes in social behavior

Changes in personality

Difficulty with problem solving

Loss of spontaneity in interacting with others

Loss of mental flexibility

Alterations in sexual behavior
Term
Frontal Lobe Pathologies cont.
Definition
Language distrubance
-Dynamic Aphasia (Luria)
- Similar to TCM aphasia
- Well- perserved motor speech
- No anomia
- Repetition is intact
- Difficulty in propositionizing
- Active speech is severely disturbed
Term
Orbitofrontal Syndrome
Definition
Disinhibited, impulsive behavior ( pseudopychopathic)

Inappropriate jocular affect, euphoria

Emotional lability

Poor judgment and insight

Distractibility
Term

Frontal convexity syndrome

Definition

Apathy(occasional brief angry outbursts)

Indifference

Psychomotor retardation

Motor perseveration and impersistence

Loss of self

Stimulus-bound behavior

Discrepant motor and verbal behavior

Term

Motor programming deficits in Frontal Lobe

Definition

3 step sequences

Alternating movements

Rhythm tapping

Term

Medial frontal syndrome

Akinetic

Definition

Paucity of spontaneous movement and gesture

Sparse verbal output –(repetition may be preserved)

Lower extremity weakness and loss of sensation

Incontinence

Term

Parietal Lobe

Definition

Located between frontal and occipital lobe and above temporal lobe

Concerned with perception of somatic sensation, sensory experience, and integration of mixed-modality information

Term

Key areas of parietal lobe

Definition

Somatosensory area

            -Sensation and perception

            -Integrates sensory information to form a single perception (cognition)

Integrating system of sensory input, primarily with the visual system

            -Constructs a spatial coordinate system to represent the world around us

Term

Important gyri in the parietal lobe

Definition

Postcentral gyrus

Superior gyrus

Inferior gyrus

Angular gyrus

Supramarginal gyrus

Term

Functions of parietal lobe

Definition

Location of visual attention

Location for sensation and perception

Goal directed voluntary objects

Integration of different senses that allows for understanding a single concept

Term

Damage to the left parietal lobe

Can result in Gerstmann’s Syndrome

Definition

Right-left confusion

Agraphia- difficulty with writing

Acalculia- difficulty with mathematics

Aphasia- disorders of language

Agnosia- inability to perceive objects normally

Term

Parietal Lobe - Bilateral Damage

Can cause Balint’s Syndrome

Definition

Ocular apraixia- inability to voluntarily control the gaze

Simultanagnosia- inability to integrate components of a visual scene

Optic ataxia- inability to accurately reach for an object with visual guidance

Term

Observed Pathologies of Parietal Lobe

Definition

Apraxia-lack of awareness of certain body parts and/or surrounding space that leads to difficulties in self-care

Anomia- inability to name object

Agraphia- inability to locate the words for writing

Anosagnosia- denial of deficits

Alexia- problems with reading

Term

Observed Pathologies in Parietal Lobe (cont.)

Definition

Contralateral neglect- neglecting part of the body or space

Constructional apraxia- right side damage can also cause difficulty in making things

Dyscalculia- difficulty with doing mathematics

Difficulty in distinguishing left from right

Inability to focus visual attention

Term

Observed Pathologies in Parietal Lobe (cont.)

Definition

Difficulties with eye hand coordination

Difficulty with drawing objects

Inability to attend to more than one object at a time

Memory deficit