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APES Chapter 6 vocab
vocab flashcards
16
Environmental Studies
10/05/2011

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Term
cultural carrying capacity
Definition
an optimum level that would allow most people to live in reasonable comfort and freedom without impairing the ability of the planet to sustain future generation
Term
population change
Definition
calculated by subtracting the number of people leaving a population (through death and emmigration) from the number entering (through birth and immigration) during a specific period of time (usually a year)
Term
crude birth rate
Definition
the number of live births per 1,000 people
Term
crude death rate
Definition
the number of deaths per 1,000 people
Term
fertility rate
Definition
the number of children born to a woman during her lifetime
Term
replacement-level fertility rate
Definition
the average number of children that couples in a population must bear to replace themselves
Term
total fertility rate (TFR)
Definition
the average number of children born to women in a population during their reproductive years
Term
infant mortality rate
Definition
the number of children per 1,000 live births who die before one year of age
Term
life expectancy
Definition
the average number of years an infant can expect to live
Term
age structure
Definition
the distribution of males and females among age groups in a population
Term
demographic transition
Definition
a hypothesis of population change. Involves four transitions (preindustrial, transitional, industrial, and postindustrial)
Term
preindustrial stage of demographic transition
Definition
population grows very slowly because of a high birth rate and a high death rate
Term
transitional phase of demographic transition
Definition
population grows rapidly because birth rates ate high and death rates drop
Term
industrial stage of demographic transition
Definition
population growth slows as both birth and death rates drop
Term
postindustrial stage of demographic transition
Definition
population growth levels off and then declines as birth rates equal and then fall below death rates
Term
family planning
Definition
provides educational and clinical services that help couples choose how many children to have and when to have them