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APUSH Chapter 20: Girding for War: The North & the South
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21
History
01/26/2013

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Term
Fort Sumter
Definition
South Carolina location where Confederate forces fired the first shots of the Civil War in April of 1861, after Union forces attempted to provision the fort.
Term
Border States
Definition
Five slave states-Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, & West Virginia-that did not secede during the Civil War.  To keep the states in the Union, Abraham Lincoln, who insisted that the war was not about abolishing slavery but rather protecting the Union.
Term
West Virginia
Definition
Mountainous region that broke away from Virginia in 1861 to form its own state after Virginia seceeded from the Union.  Most of the residents of West Virginia were independent farmers and miners who did not own slaves & thus opposed the Confederate cause.
Term
Trent Affair
Definition
Diplomatic row that threatened to bring the British into the Civil War on the side of Confederacy, after a Union warship stopped a British steamer & arrested two Confederate diplomats on board.
Term
Alabama
Definition
British built & manned Confederate warship that raided Union shipping during the Civil War.  One of many built by the British for the Confederacy despite Union protests.
Term
Laird Rams
Definition
Two well-armed ironclad warships contructed for the Confederacy by a British firm.  Seeking to avoid war with the United States, the British government purchased the two ships for its Royal Navy instead.
Term
Dominion of Canada
Definition
Unified Canadian government created by Britain to bolster Canadians against potential attacks or overtures from the United States.
Term
Write of Habeas Corpus
Definition
Petition requiring law enforcement officers to present detained individuals before the court to examine the legality of the arrest.  Protects individuals from arbitrary state action.  Suspended by Lincoln during the Civil War.
Term
New York Draft Riots
Definition
Uprising, mostly of working class Irish-Americans in protest of the draft.  Rioters were particularly incensed by the ability of the rich to hire substitutes or purchase exemptions.
Term
Morrill Tariff Act
Definition
Increased duties back up to 1864 levels to raise revenue for the Civil War.
Term
Greenbacks
Definition
Paper currency issued by the Union treasury during the Civil War.  Inadequately supported by gold, greenbacks fluctuated in value throughout the war, reaching a low of 39 cents on the dollar.
Term
National Banking System
Definition
Network of membered banks that could issue currency against purchased government bonds.  Created during the Civil War to establish a stable national currency & stimluate the sale of bonds.
Term
Homestead Act
Definition
A federal law that gave settlers 160 acres of land for about $30 if they lived on it for five years & improved it, for instance, by building a house on it.  The act helped make land accessible to hundreds of thousands of westward-moving settlers, but many people also found disappointment when their land was infertile or they saw speculators grabbing the best land.
Term
U.S. Sanitary Commission
Definition
Founded with the help of Elizabeth Blackwell, the government agency trained nurses, collected medical supplies & equipped hospitals in an effort to help the Union Army.  The commission helped professionalize nursing & gave many women the confidence & organizational skills to propel the women's movement in the post war years.
Term
Charles Francis Adams
Definition
Convinced the British to buy Laird Rams & stop the Alabama affair without war.
Term
Napoleon III
Definition
Dictator of France who capture Mexico for a brief period.
Term
Maximilian
Definition
Puppet of Napoleon who ruled Mexico for a brief period before being executed.
Term
Jefferson Davis
Definition
Struggled as President of the Confederate states due to his centralized views & the extreme states' righters.
Term
Elizabeth Blackwell
Definition
Physician who founded the U.S. Sanitary Commission.
Term
Clara Barton
Definition
Founded the Red Cross; elevated the nursing profession along with Dorthea Dix through their work.
Term
Sally Tompkins
Definition
Awarded Confederate rank of Captain for running her infirmary in Richmond.