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AP Psychology
Chapter 18: Social Psychology
38
Psychology
05/11/2009

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Term
frustration-aggression principle
Definition
the principle that frustration--the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal--creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Term
group polarization
Definition
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
Term
prejudice
Definition
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members; generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
Term
bystander effect
Definition
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likey to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Term
social facilitation
Definition
stonger responses on simple or well-learned taks in the presense of others.
Term
attribution theory
Definition
suggests how we explain someon's behavior--by crediting either the situation or the person's dispositions.
Term
superordinate goals
Definition
shared goals that override differences among people and require cooperation.
Term
discrimination
Definition
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
Term
equity
Definition
a condition in which people receive from a relationships in proportion to what they give to it.
Term
ingroup
Definition
"Us"--people whom one shares a common identity.
Term
fool-in-the-door phenomenon
Definition
the tendency for people who have agreed to a small request to comply later with a large request.
Term
compassionate love
Definition
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom out lives are intertwined.
Term
fundamental attribution error
Definition
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
Term
informational social influence
Definition
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
Term
stereotype
Definition
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
Term
aggression
Definition
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
Term
deindividuation
Definition
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Term
altruism
Definition
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Term
conflict
Definition
a perceived incompatability of action, goals, or ideas.
Term
reciprocity norm
Definition
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
Term
GRIT (Graduated Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction)
Definition
a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
Term
social trap
Definition
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
Term
passionate love
Definition
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the begining of a love relationship.
Term
self-disclosure
Definition
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
Term
mere expensive effect
Definition
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
Term
social responsibility norm
Definition
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
Term
cognitive dissonance theory
Definition
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel wehn two of our thoughts are inconsistent.
Term
social loafing
Definition
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward a common goal than when individually held accountable.
Term
conformity
Definition
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Term
social exchange theory
Definition
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
Term
attitude
Definition
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Term
just-world phenomenon
Definition
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people get what they deserve.
Term
outgroup
Definition
"Them"--those percieved as different or apart from one's ingroup.
Term
ingroup bias
Definition
the tendency to favor one's own group.
Term
groupthink
Definition
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
Term
social psychology
Definition
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Term
normative social influence
Definition
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Term
scapegoat theory
Definition
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.