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AP Human Geography, Unit 3
Vocabulary words, Mr.Crider (6th period)
155
Geography
10/10/2012

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Term
ACCULTURATION
Definition
Occurs when a less-dominent culture comes into contact w/ & adopts traits from a more dominent culture.
Term
APARTHEID
Definition
South Africa's Engish-Dutch imposed gov't segregating white & black inhabitants.
Term
BRANCH OF A RELIGION
Definition
Large division within a religion.
Term
CULTURAL CONVERGENCE
Definition
Occurs when one culture adopts a cultural attribute of another.
Term
CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY
Definition
Field of human geo. that analyzes how & why culture is expressed in different ways in different places.
Term
CULTURAL HOMOGENEITY
Definition
Occurs when cultures become the same, or uniform, & local diversity is decreased.
Term
CULTURAL IMPERIALISM
Definition
Invasion of a culture into another w/ the intent of dominating the invading culture politically, economically, & or socially.
Term
CULTURE NATIONALISM
Definition
Movement to protect one's culture from invasion or influence & threat to one's own culture highly related to the emotional attachment an individualhas for his/her culture.
Term
CULTURE REGIONS
Definition
Area in which a culture system is found or prevalent.
Term
CULTURE SYSTEMS
Definition
Collection of culture complexes that shape a groups common identity.
Term
DENOMINATION OF A REGION
Definition
Group of a common congregations within a branch of religion
Term
ENFRANCHISEMENT
Definition
Right to vote
Term
ETHNIC ENCLAVE
Definition
Another name for an ethnic neighborhood surrounded by an unwelcoming, discrimatory, or hostile ethnic group or groups
Term
ETHNOCENTRISM
Definition

using one's own cultural identity of the superior standard by which to judge other; often causes discriminatory behavior

 

Term
FEMALE INFANTICIDE
Definition
murder of female infants
Term
GENDER GAP
Definition
difference in social, econimic, & political power and oppertunity between men and women
Term
GENDER IMBALANCE
Definition
Unequal  # of men & women in a place.
Term
GHETTO
Definition
Ethnic neighborhood created by gov't, social, or economic pressures, causing people of ethnicity to live together.
Term
INDEPENDANT INNOVATION
Definition
Invention of the same phenomenon by two culture hearths w/o each knowing about the others invention or, sometimes, existence.
Term
INDO-GANGETIC HEARTH
Definition
Hearth near the Indus & Ganges rivers where Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism originated.
Term
LANGUAGE EXTINCTION
Definition
Occurs when a people's language is no longer used in the world.
Term
LANGUAGE REPLACEMENT
Definition
Occurs when invaders replace w/ their own language the language of the people whom  they conquer. 
Term
TRANSCULTURATION
Definition
Equal exchange of cultural traits between two culture; a form of cultural convegence.
Term
LONGETIVITY GAP
Definition
Difference between life expectancies of men & women
Term
MALDAPTIVE DIFFUSION
Definition

Adoption of a difussing trait that is impractical for a region or culture. 

-i.e. Mc.D moving to India

Term
MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE
Definition
Death rate among women giving birth
Term
MIGRANT DIFFUSION
Definition

Type of relocation diffusion in which the spreading phenomenon's epicenter moves w/ the relocating group of users. (Think disease diffusion)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term
REGIONAL IDENTITY
Definition
Common identification a group of people w/ a particular place.
Term
REVERSE RECONSTRUCTION
Definition
Process of tracking a language diffusion. The process begins w/ the most recent places of the languages existence & moves backwards through time, comparing w/ people who use the same or similar words.
Term
S-CURVE DIFFUSION
Definition
Diffusion often follows this pattern of a slower pace in the innovation stage, followed by a rapid diffusion pattern in the majority- adopter stage, & finishing in a slower- paced "Laggard" stage.
Term
SECT
Definition
Small group that breaks away from a denomination within a religion's branch.
Term
SEMETIC HEARTH
Definition
Hearth near modern- day Israel where Judaism, Christianity, & Islam originated.
Term
SOCIAL DISTANCE
Definition
Measurement tof how "distant" or different two ethnicities or social groups are from each other.
Term
SPACIAL DIFFUSION
Definition
Spread of any phenomenon (Such as disease) across space & time. Culture diffusion is a form of spacial diffusion in whichcultural phenomena diffuse.
Term
SYNCRETIC RELIGION
Definition
Religion blending elements from various religions.
Term
STANDARD LANGUAGE
Definition
Acceptable of a given language as declared by political or societal leaders.
Term
ENVIROMENTAL DETERMINISM
Definition
people in more stable climates are more prone to succeed than people who live in tropical climates
Term
ANIMISM
Definition
The doctrine that all natural objects & the universe itself have souls.
Term
FOLK CULTURE
Definition
  • small
  • incorperates a homogenious (same) population
  • typically rural
  • cohesive in cultural traits
Term
SPATIAL DIFFUSION
Definition
spread of anyphenomenon (such as disease) across space and time. culture diffusion in which cultural phenomena diffuse
Term
ASSIMILATION
Definition
The process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structur.
Term
BARRIO
Definition
An urban area in a Spanish-speaking country.
Term
LONGEVITY GAB
Definition
difference between life expectancies of men and women
Term
MALADAPTIVE DUFFUSION
Definition
adoption of a diffusing trait that is impractical for a region or culture
Term
CARL SAUCER
Definition
An early 20th century geographer from California that shaped the field of human geography by arguing that cultural landscapes should be the main focus of geographic study. His study is basic to environmental geography, and his methods of landscape analysis provided a lens for interpreting cultural landscapes as directly and indirectly altered over time as a result of human activity
Term
CASTE SYSTEM
Definition
System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through their actions, or karma. After many lives of good karma, they may be relieved from cycle of life and win their place in heaven.
Term
INTRAFAITH BOUNDRIES
Definition
boundries within a single major faith
Term
LANGUAGE DIVERGENCE
Definition
the opposite of language convergence; new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
Term
MONOLINGUAL
Definition
people/places able to speak one language
Term
MONOTHEISTIC RELIGION
Definition
belief system in which one supreame being is reserved as creator and arbiter of all that exists in theuniverse
Term
CREOLE
Definition
A mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
Term
CULTURAL DIFFUSION
Definition
The spread of cultural elements from one society to another
Term
UNIVERSALIZING RELIGION
Definition
a belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is the one true universal in scope.
Term
TYPONYM
Definition
place name
Term
THEORACY
Definition
A state whose government is under the controlof the of a ruler deemed to divinely guided, or of a group of religious leaders, as in post-khomeini iran. the opposite of theocracy is a secular state
Term
TAOISM
Definition
Beileived to have been founded by lao-tsu and based upon hisbook entitled "tao-te-ching" or "book of the way"  lao-tsu focused on the proper form of political rule on the oneness of humanity and nature
Term
SHINTOISM
Definition
 Mix between buddism and a local religion in japan, created shintoism.
Term
DOWRY DEATH
Definition
When the bride of a family has to be killed because her family cannot pay the fee to marry her off.
Term
CONFUCIANISM
Definition
Mainly a philosophy of life, it had a great and lasting impacts in chinese life; real meaning of life lay in the present.
Term
CULTURAL ECOLOGY
Definition
The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural enviroment
Term
CULTURE COMPLEX
Definition
A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking utensils
Term
CULTURAL HEARTH
Definition
Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of major culture
Term
CULTURAL TRAIT
Definition
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban
Term
ETHNICITY
Definition
Affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture
Term
GENICODE
Definition
The killing or extermination of an entire people or nation
Term
GENDER
Definition
Social differences between men and women, rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes. Notions of gender differences - that is, what is considered "feminine" or "masculine" - vary greatly over time and space
Term

RACE

Definition
A categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics. Racial categories are social and political constructions because they are based on ideas that some biologiacal differences (especially skin color) are more important than others (e.g., height, etc.), even thought the latter miht have more significance in therms of human activity. With its roots in sixteenth-century England, the term is closely associated with European colonialism because of the impact of the development on global understandings of racial differences
Term
CULTURAL LANDSCAPE
Definition
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
Term
CULTURE
Definition
Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct traditions
Term
DIASPORA
Definition
("to disperse") forceful or voluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place (originally denoting the dispersal of the Jews, it is increasingly applied to other population dispersals, such as the involuntary relocation of Black peoples during the slave trade or Chinese peoples outside of Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong)
Term
ETHNIC CLEANSING
Definition
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Term
ETHNIC RELIGION
Definition
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Term
EXPANSION DIFFUSION
Definition
The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area
Term
LINGUA FRANCA
Definition
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Term
MULTILINGUAL STATE
Definition
Countries in which more than one language is spoken
Term
SHAMANISM
Definition
Form of a tribal religion that involved community acceptance of a shaman, a religious leader, healer, and worker of magic who, through special powers, can intercede with and interpret the spirit world.
Term
SECULARISM
Definition
A doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
Term
INTRAFAITH BOUNDARY 
Definition
the boundaries whin a major religion.
Term
MATERIAL COMPONENTS  OF CULTURE
Definition
piece of a cultural landscape that are tangible, such as clothing and architecture.
Term
NONMATERIAL COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
Definition
pieces of a culture that are intangible, such as beliefs and attitudes.
Term
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
Definition
the language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Term
PERCEPTUAL REGIONS
Definition
regions that reflect human feelings and attitudes
Term
PIDGIN LANGUAGE
Definition

A simplified form of speech that is usually a mixture of two or more languages, has a rudimentary grammar and vocabulary, is used for communication between groups speaking different languages, and is not spoken as a first or native language. Also called contact language.
Term
POLITICAL ECOLOGY
Definition
 the Study of the politics of environmental changes that influence the changes in socioeconomic power relations of the people in a society which may be due to natural or human induced phenomena and development interventions.
Term
POLYTHEISTIC RELIGION
Definition
 belief in a plurality of gods in which each deity is distinguished by special functions.
Term
POPULAR CULTURE
Definition
The culture of the masses, no matter what was taught in schools, continued to proliferate.
Term
POSSIBILISM
Definition
A view of the environment as a range of opportunities from which the individual may choose. This choice is based on the individual's needs and norms.

Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/possibilism-1#ixzz2CQJz4ox6
Term
PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN
Definition
a prehistoric unrecorded language that was the ancestor of all Indo-European languages
Term
SEQUENT OCCUPANCE
Definition
The succeeding stages of human inhabitation over time on one site. Each stage is seen as being established by its predecessor, although the sequence will almost certainly be interrupted by outside forces.

Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/sequent-occupance#ixzz2CQNjODXk
Term
RELOCATION DIFFUSION
Definition
The spread of an idea through physical movement of people form one place to another.
Term
STIMULUS EXPANSION DIFFUSION
Definition
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place. Each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.

Term
SUNNI AND SHIITE MUSLIMS
Definition
The branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors of Muhammad.is the second largest denomination of islam, after sunni islam.
Term
Alfred Weber
Definition
Economic geographer developed a model for the location of manufactoring plants
Term
Informal Sector
Definition
Illegal or unaccounted for economy that govn'ts do not tax & keep track of from garden to black market
Term
Industrialization
Definition
industry pertaining of machines
Term
Global Warming Theory
Definition
Troposheric polution causes earth to retain more heat & effect wont be felt til the 21st century
Term
Free Trade
Definition
causes a countrys long term growth rate by expanding access to global tech & promoting chaos
Term
Teritiary Economic Activities
Definition
economic activity accosiated with the provision of services such as transportation, retailing, education & routine office basic jobs
Term
Structualist Theorys
Definition
a general term for a model of economic development that treats disporities amoung countries on regional the result of historicaly durrived power relation with the global economy
Term
Structual Adjustments
Definition
Loans granted by international financial instructory such as the world trade & the international montery travel countries in the periffery & same in exchange for certain economic governmental economy in the country lux prival;ation of certain gov't entitles & opening the country ti forein trade
Term
Special Economic Zone
Definition
Specific area within a country in which tax & economical regulations are implemented  to attend forein investment
Term
Secondary Economic Activities
Definition
Economic activity involving the processing of raw materials & then transformation its finished industrial products, the manufacturing sector
Term
Least Cost Theory
Definition
States that optimum location of a manufacturing firm is explained in terms of cost minimization
Term
Locational Interdependence
Definition

The response of a plant to its competitors in a given location. Plants may be attracted or repelled by the presence of rival plants and plan their locational strategies with regard to their competitors. Irregular arrangements may be made by two firms to locate so as to split the market between them.



Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/locational-interdependence#ixzz2LeeLUj7l

Term
Rowstow's Modernization
Definition

1) traditional society

2) preconditions to take-off

3) take-off

4) drive to maturity

5) age of high mass consumption

Term
Agglomeration
Definition
A jumbled collection or mass
Term
Agglomeratation Economy
Definition
A reduction in production cost the results when related firms locate near one another. Firms can be related as competitors in the same industry, by using the same inputs, or through providing output to the same demographic group. The fashion industry, for example, experiences agglomeration economies because they can share specialized inputs (photographers, models) that would be too expensive to employ full time. Retail stores have agglomeration economies when located in shopping malls because they have access to a large group of potential customers with lower advertising cost. Agglomeration economies is given as one of the primary reasons for the emergence of urban areas
Term
Asian Tigers
Definition
Pakistani militant group, first publicised when they claimed credit for the kidnapping of former Pakistani intelligence officers
Term
Big Mac Index
Definition
published by The Economist as an informal way of measuring the purchasing power parity (PPP) between two currencies and provides a test of the extent to which market exchange rates result in goods costing the same in different countries.
Term
Comparative Advantage
Definition
refers to the ability of a party to produce a particular good or service at a lower marginal and opportunity cost over another
Term
Conglomerate Corporation
Definition
A corporation that is made up of a number of different, seemingly unrelated businesses. In a conglomerate, one company owns a controlling stake in a number of smaller companies, which conduct buisness separately. Each of a conglomerate's subsidiary businesses runs independently of the other business divisions, but the subsidiaries' management reports to senior management at the parent company

Read more: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/conglomerate.asp#ixzz2M8MCxAMt
Term
Commodification
Definition
the process through which something is given monetary value. Commodification occurs when a good idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought & sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that could be tradedd in the market economy
Term
Dependency Theory
Definition
a structuralist that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. based on the idea that certain types of political & economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control & limit the extent to which regions can develop
Term
Deglomeration
Definition
the process of an industrial deconsentration in responce to technological advances &/or increasing costs due to congrestion & competition
Term
Developing
Definition
with respect to a country, making progress to a technology, production and socioeconomic welfare
Term
Export-Processing Zone
Definition
zones established by many countries in the perifery & semi-perifery where thye offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to affect forein trade & investment
Term
Ford Production (Fordist) Method
Definition
a highly organized & specialized system for organizing industrial production & labor. named after automobile producer Henry Ford, fordist production ft assembly-line production of standardized componets of mass consuption
Term
Globalization
Definition
the expansion of the economic, political, & cultural processes to the point where they become global in scale & impact. the processes of globalization transcend state boundaries that have outcomes that vary across places and scales
Term
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Definition
the total value of all goods & services produced within a country durring a given year
Term
High-tech Corridor (Technopole)
Definition
areas along neer major transportation arteries that are devoted to the research, development, and a scale of high-tech products. these areas develop bc of the networking and synergistic advantages of concentrating high-tech enterprises in close proximity to one another. "silicon valley" is a prime example of a high-tech corridor in the U.S.
Term
Industrial Revolution
Definition
the term applied to the social & econimic changes in agriculture, comerence, & manufacturing that resulted from technological innovations & specialization in the late 18th century (Europe)
Term
Locational Interdependence
Definition
theory developed by economist Harold Hotelling that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's teritory as much as possible which therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base
Term
Maquiladora Zones
Definition
zones in northern mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. the low-wage workers in the primaraly forein-owned factories assemble imported components &/or raw materials & then export finished goods
Term
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGO)
Definition
international organization thatoperate outside of the formal political area but that are nevertheless influentialin spearheading internatinal on social, economic, & enviromental issues
Term
Outsource
Definition
with refrence to production, to turn over in part or in total to the 3rd party
Term
Primary Economic Activity
Definition
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural recources from the enviroment - such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Term
Quaternary Economic Activity
Definition

service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, & manipulation of the information & capital.

*Examples: finance, administration, insurance, & legal services

Term
More-developed country
Definition
a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less developed nations
Term
development gap 
Definition
the disparity in development between the EMDW and ELDW.
Term
economy 
Definition
The wealth and resources of a country or region, esp. in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services.
Term
ecotourism 
Definition
Tourism in exotic, often threatened, natural environments, esp. to support conservation efforts and observe wildlife.
Term
fair trade 
Definition
Trade in which fair prices are paid to producers in developing countries.
Term
footloose industry 
Definition
Footloose industry is a general term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect from factors such as.
Term
foreign direct investment
Definition
investing in United States businesses by foreign citizens (often involves stock ownership of the business).
Term
greenhouse effect 
Definition
The trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation.
Term
human development index (HDI)
Definition
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" and separate.
Term
international trade approach 
Definition
 The economic interaction among different nations involving the exchange of goods and services, that is, exports and imports.
Term
less-developed country 
Definition
Developing country is a term generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well-being (not to be confused with third.
Term
liberal development theories
Definition
Neither individualism nor the belief that freedom is a primary political good are immutable laws of history.
Term
market orientation 
Definition
(Market oriented) A market economy is economy based on the power of division of labor in which the prices of goods and services are.
Term
multinational corporation (MNC)
Definition
A multinational corporation (MNC) trans national co-operation.(TNC), also called multinational enterprise (MNE), is a corporation or an.
Term
new industrial country (NIC)
Definition
A term used by political scientists and economists to describe a country whose level of economic development ranks it somewhere between the developing and first-world classifications.

Term
spatially fixed costs
Definition
cost that does not vary depending on production or sales levels, such as rentproperty taxinsurance, or interest expense.

Term
new international division of labor
Definition
Spread of different stages of manufacturing to locations in different countries, to exploit differences in factor costs and economies of.
Term
north-south gap
Definition
the difference in attitudes or situation between people in the northern and southern parts of a country.In the USthe south is generally more conservative than the northwhile in the UK the north isgenerally poorer than the south.
Term
pacific rim economic region
Definition
The countries and landmasses surrounding the Pacific Ocean, often considered as a socioeconomic region.
Term
privatization 
Definition
changing something from state to private ownership or control
Term
purchasing power parity (PPP)
Definition
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a theory of long-term equilibrium exchange rates based on relative price levels of two countries. The.
Term
self-sufficiency approach
Definition
able to supply one's own or its own needs without external assistance
Term
spatially variable costs
Definition
ikely to change or vary; subject to variation; changeable.
Term
substitution principle 
Definition
In mathematics, substitution of variables (also called variable substitution or coordinate transformation) refers to the substitution of.
Term
sustainable principle
Definition
Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Term
sustainable development 
Definition
Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs.
Term
weight-gaining process
Definition
resources or advantage acquired or increased
Term
weight-losing process
Definition
Your body weight comprises more than just fat and muscle.