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AP Human Geography: Ethnicity Vocab
16 key terms in the APHG study of religion, culled from the Rubenstein textbook. Includes examples.
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Geography
12/02/2010

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Term
Apartheid
Definition
Def:
Laws that physically separate different races into different geographical areas.

Ex:
During the early 1900s, this sort of law was in full effect in South Africa, and was later overthrown in the 1990s. This is where the term comes from!
Term
Balkanization
Definition
Def:
A process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.

Ex:
This was named after the Balkan region in Europe, the site of all of the countries formerly of the Soviet Union. This process, by which they split from communist Russia, disbanding the Soviet Union, is called balkanization after the geographical area. Ethnic groups felt repressed and decided to secede.
Term
Blockbusting
Definition
Def:
An unethical real-estate practice by which realtors convince white property owners to sell their holdings at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood. Subsequently, the realtors sell the houses to the persons of color at a heavily inflated price.

Ex:
This was very prevalent in the American South during the 1950s.
Term
Centripetal force
Definition
Def:
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.

Ex: The United Nations helped propagate a centripetal force in the creation of Israel.
Term
Centrifugal force
Definition
Def:
An attitude that tends to divide people and decrease support for a state.

Ex:
Centrifugal force fueled by ethnic tension divided the Soviet Union.
Term
Ethnicity
Definition
Def:
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

Ex:
African-American-Ethnicity
African-Race
Term
Ethnic Cleansing
Definition
Def:
A purposeful policy designed by one ethnic group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic group from certain geographic areas.

Ex:
The South African Apartheid is an example of ethnic cleansing--whites eliminated blacks from areas of South Africa that they wanted.
Term
Genocide
Definition
Def:
The deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or part, of an ethnic, racial, national, or religious group.

Ex:
The Holocaust was a genocide on Jews.
Term
Multiethnic State
Definition
Def:
State that contains more than one ethnicity.

Ex:
The U.S. contains people of all ethnicities-Caucasian, African, Asian, etc.
Term
Multinational State
Definition
Def:
A state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.

Ex:
The United Kingdom--It contains Irish, Welsh, and British people, yet they all coexist in peace.
Term
Nationalism
Definition
Def:
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.

Ex:
American patriotism.
Term
Nationality
Definition
Def:
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born here.

Ex:
I am American, as I was born here, have a legal attachment (citizenship) to this country, and a personal allegiance to the U.S.
Term
Nation-state
Definition
Def:
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.

Ex:
Japan--Overwhelming majority has always been Japanese.
Term
Race
Definition
Def:
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.

Ex:
African-American-Ethnicity
African-Race
Term
Racism
Definition
Def:
The belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.

Ex:
Mid-1900s USA-Slavery + Civil Rights Movement
Term
Self-determination
Definition
Def:
The principle, in international law, that nations have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no external compulsion or external interference.

Ex:
Northern Ireland was self-determinant by choosing to become part of the U.K. rather than the Republic of Ireland.